A/B or ABLE BODIED SEAMAN A member of the deck crew who is able to perform all the duties of an experienced seamen; certificated by examination and has three years sea service. Also called Able Seamen and A.B. 
A.T. American Terms (Marine Insurance) A term used to differentiate between the conditions of American Policies from those of other nations, principally England.
ABAFT A Point beyond the midpoint of a Ship’s length, towards the rear or stern.
ABANDON A proceeding wherein a shipper / consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo.
ABATEMENT A discount allowed for damage or overcharge in the payment of a Bill.
ABI Automated Brokerage Interface Is a system available to U.S. Customs Brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating prompt release of imported cargo. 
ABOARD Referring to Cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance.
ABS The American Bureau of Shipping is a U.S. classification society that certifies if a ship is in compliance with standard rules of construction and maintenance.
ABSORPTION One carrier assumes the Charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper.
ACCEPTANCE  Any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. An agreement to purchase goods at a state price and under stated terms.
ACCESSORIAL CHARGES Charges that are applied to the base tariff rate or base contract rate, e.g. bunkers, container, currency, destination / delivery.
ACQUIESCENCE  When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper's agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent.
ACQUITTANCE A written receipt in full, in discharge from all claims.
ACT OF GOD  It is a natural event, not preventable by any human agency, such as flood, storms, or lightning. Forces of nature that a carrier has no control over, and therefore cannot be held accountable.
ACTION OF AUTHORITIES Delay may be caused by decisions of harbour and port authorirites. These decisions are outside the charterer's control and the charterer cannot be held to be resposible for the delay. The results of such action can very from preventing a vessel's berthing through negligent cargo handling by dock authorities to the vessel's being ordered to leave a berth temporarily for reasons determined only by the authorities in such circumstances, the charterer does not lose laytime. The delay may not justify the owner's claim for demurrage for delay caused by such action.
AD VALOREM A term from Latin meaning, “according to value”. Import duty applied as a percentage of the Cargo’s dutiable value.
ADDENDUM  Whenever the terms in a fully signed C/P are amended by subsequent negations an addendum is prepared by the charterer's broker (and forms a part of the C/P). It comes into effect only when it is signed by all parties just like the original C/P.
ADDITIONAL PREMIUM This may be payable by charterers of shippers to the cargo insurers because of the ship's age, class or flag. The charterparty can provide that this extra premium is deductible from freight or form hire. The owner should attempt t qualify a clause with such a provision by limiting the amount of deduction and also by requiring the charterer to provide proper decumentation as proof of the extra insurance before the deduction.
ADDRESS COMMISSION  Commission payable to the charterer by the ship-owner as a percentage of freight or hire. Historically it was paid to the charterer to cover up some of the expenses incurred by him.  At present it virtually works out to a reduction in the freight.
ADMIRALITY COURT  Is a   court having jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.
ADMIRALTY Refers to marine matters such as an Admiralty Court.
ADVANCE CHARGE Transportation charge advanced by  one carrier to another to be collected by the later carrier from the consignor or consignee
ADVANCE FREIGHT  Partial payment of the bill of lading freight in advance; in other respects is the same as guaranteed freight. In other words, freight payable before goods are accepted for shipment. Once paid it can not be recovered from the ship-owner upon frustration on voyage and loss of goods.
ADVENTURE Shipment of goods on shipper’s own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carriers goods at owner’s risk. Also, a term used in some insurance policies to mean a voyage or a shipment.
ADVICE OF SHIPMENT A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading.
ADVISING BANK A bank operating in the seller’s country that handles letters of credit on behalf of a foreign bank.
ADVISORY CAPACITY It is a term, which indicates that the shipper's agent, or representative is not empowered to make any definite decisions or adjustments without the approval of the group or the individual being represented. 
AFRAMAX  Tanker of maximum 79,999 dwt on the AFRA freight rate assessment scale.
AFFREIGHTMENT  The hiring of a ship in whole or part
AFT Movement toward the stern (back end) of a ship.
AGENT (AGT) A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agents are: 1) brokers, 2) commission merchants, 3) resident buyers, 4) sales agents, 5) manufacture’s representatives.
AGENCY AGREEMENT  The steamship line appoints the steamship agent and defines the specific duties and areas of responsibility of that agent.
AGENCY FEE A fee charged to the ship by the ship's agent, representing payment for services while the ship was in port. Sometimes called attendance fee. 
AGENCY TARIFF A tariff published by an agent on behalf of several carriers.
AGGREGATE SHIPMENT Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
AGREED VALUATION The value of a shipment agreed upon in order to secure a specific freight rate.
AGREED WEIGHT The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number.
AGROUND The bottom of the ship may touch the ground in a loading or discharging port because of tidal charges in the water level. If a charter allows the charterer to send the ship to a port where it can safely touch the ground it will contain a clause describing the ship as being “… not always afloat but safely aground…”
AIDS TO NAVIGATION Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters.
AIR CARGO AGENT Is a  type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo and acts for airlines that pay him a fee (usually 5%). He is registered with the International Air Transport Association, IATA (See also Air Freight Forwarder; Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder).

AIRCARGO CONTAINERS  Containers designed to conform to the inside of an aircraft. There are many shapes and sizes of containers. Aircargo containers fall into three categories: 1) aircargo pallets 2) lower deck containers 3) box type containers
AIR DRAFT  This term has various meanings the most common being: The maximum height from the water line to the top-most point of a ship.
AIR FREIGHT FORWARDER Is a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. He usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He issues his own air waybills to the exporters, is licensed by the CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board) and has the status of an indirect air carrier (See also Air Cargo Agent, Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder.)
AIR FREIGHTMENT An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer, who then becomes liable for payment even though he is later unable to make the shipment.
AIR WAYBILL  A bill of lading that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. This is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates it to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.
ALL COMMODITY RATE A freight rate applying, with certain restrictions, to any and all commodities. 
ALL IN The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges.
ALL RISK  The broadest form of coverage available, providing protection against all risks of physical loss or damage from any external cause. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, pre-shipment condition, inadequate packaging, or loss of market.
ALL TIME SAVED  Means that the time saved to a ship from the completion of loading/discharging to the expiry of lay-time including periods excepted from lay-time.
ALL TOLD In some charter parties the dead weight capacity of the vessel is shown with the addition “all told” (DWAT), which means the capacity mentioned in the charter party represents the total deadweight capacity including bunkers, water provisions, dunnage, stores, spare parts, crew passengers, and their effects. In order to arrive at the dead weight capacity for cargo (DWCC) deductions have to be made for bunkers, water etc.
ALL WORKING TIME SAVED or ALL LAYTIME SAVED  Both these terms mean the same. Here the description of the time means that time saved to the owner from the completion of the loading and/or discharging until the expiry of the allowed lay-time excluding and notice time and periods which are exceptions to lay-time.
ALLISION The striking by a moving vessel against a stationary object.
ALONGSIDE  A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship”
ALTERNATE HOLDS  Iron ore being a very heavy cargo is loaded in alternate holds, leaving remaining holds empty.
ALTERNATIVE RATES Privilege to use the rate production the lowest charge.
ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE The Charterer can send the ship to ports in which the ship can be reached for the purpose of handling cargo or carrying out any other activity with the shore and as required by the Charterer.
ALWAYS AFLOAT or ALWAYS SAFELY AFLOAT  This clause is inserted in a C/P to prevent a vessel from being ordered to proceed to a berth where she touches the ground during loading of discharging or which can only be reached after lighterage of part of her cargo or which can only be reached during high tide.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE The temperature of a surroundings body.  The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed.
AMIDSHIPS  Generally speaking the word amidships means in the middle portion of a vessel.
ANCHOR  a heavy iron instrument, usually connected to the vessel by a chain or rope, that is used to grip the sea bottom to hold the boat in place. 
ANCHOR HANDLING TUG  Tug that moves anchors and tow drilling vessels, lighters and similar. Also ANCHOR HANDLING TUG/SUPPLY used also for supplies
ANCHORAGE  Port charge relating to a vessel moored at approved anchorage site in a harbor.
ANTI DUMPING DUTY  A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufactures.
ANTICORROSIVE PAINT This is a special type of rust-preventing primer on a bituminous base. It is used as a primer for vessel's bottom paints in dry-dock, It has two functions: to prevent corrosion and to bind old anti-fouling that has become porous because the antitoxins or posions have escaped.
ANTIFOULING COMPOSITION These coating are for underwater use on hills. They contain poisons based on copper and mercury compounds. The poisons prevent the adhesion of organisms to the hull. During the life of the vessel, the poisons "leach" or are gradually relesed into the sea, killing off the organisms. This paint must never be applied to bare steel because the copper and mercury compounds may cause severe corrosion.
ANY QUANTITY (A.Q.) Usually refers appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine.
API GRAVITY In the oil industry influenced by the United States the "American Petroleum Institute" scale of mass/volume is used. The API scale is bassed on a standard, reference temperatore of 60 degrees F and can be convenent to "special gravity" (SG) by the formula. SG (AT 60 DEGREE F) = 141.5/API + 1315
APPAREL The  cargo capacity may bedefined in a charterparty as follows: "…tons, not exceeding what she can reasonably stow and carry in addition to her tackle, apparel, provisions, bunkers and furniture." The world "appparel" relates to the equipment of the vessel such as anchors, chains, lifeboats, ect.
APPARENT GOOD ORDER AND CONDITION Under the Hague-Visby Rules the carrier is required, after receiving the goods into his charge, to issue to the shipper a bill of lading showing, among other things, the "order and condition of the goods", The buyer of goods usually requires those goods in an undamaged state. The receipt given by the carrier is the only initial evidence that the goods are indeed undamaged, when received.
APPROACH CHANNELS Approach channel is typically an artificially dredged portion of the seabed created to provide adequate navigational depth to the ships entering or leaving the port. Lack of adequate depth can be a constraint for large ships from calling on certain ports.
APPROVED CHARTERPARTY  A charterparty which has been agreed upon, adopted or recommended by BIMCO, G.C.B.S., etc.
APRON  The area immediately in front of or behind a wharf shed on which cargo is lifted. On the "front apron," cargo is unloaded from or loaded onto a ship. Behind the shed, cargo moves over the "rear apron" into and out of railroad cars.
APS (Arrival Pilot Station) This expresssion is used to identify the point at which a time-chartered ship "delivered" to the charterer or "redelivered" to the shipwoner.
ARA (Arntwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam A range of ports in a charterparty or report of a fixture specifying that the ship is chartered to load of discharge at a port or ports in this range.
ARBITRAGE  The buying of foreign exchange, securities, or commodities in one market and the simultaneous selling in another market, in terms of a third market. By this manipulation a profit is made because of the difference in the rates of exchange or in the prices of securities or commodities involved.
ARBITRATION A Method of settling disputes which are usually binding on parties. A clause usually in a Charter Party.
ARBITRARY A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point.
ARBITRATION CLAUSE Is a standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.
ARREST OF SEIZURE UNDER LEGAL PROCESS A ship may be arrested for a maritime claim against in through legal action, as a guarantee for payment for damages. Febore a ship can be arrested, a court must approve such action. The procedures for ship arrest vary between countries.
ARRIVAL NOTICE A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee, the “Notify Party”, and when applicable the “Also Notify Party”.  These parties in interest are listed in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively, of the Bill of Lading.
ARRIVAL PILOT STATION  A point of identification at which a time-chartered vessel is delivered to the charterer (or re-delivered to the ship-owner). In this case the hire commences (or ends) as soon as the vessel reaches the pilot station. (This term favours the ship-owner vis-à-vis “taking inward pilot” which favours the charterer).
ARRIVED SHIP  A vessel is an arrived ship and the lay time allowed under the C/P begins to count as soon as the following conditions have been complied with: 1) The vessel must have arrived at the port, berth or dock as stated in the C/P. 2) The vessel must be ready to load or discharge in every way. 3) A notice of readiness must have been given in writing to the charterers or shippers/consignees.
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT  The document containing all particulars relating to the terms of agreement between the Master of the vessel and the crew. Also known as ship's or shipping articles.
ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR Artificial harbour is created by constructing physical obstructing structures like break waters, artificial mounds, dykes etc, so that impact of sea currents are minimized and ships can enter the harbour area safely.
ARTIFICIAL LAGOON PORT An artificial lagoon port is established by creation of dredged lagoon, which extends the sea approach into the land area, which protects the ships entering the lagoon are from strong sea currents.  New Mangalore port in Karnataka is one such port established in India by carving out an artificial lagoon.
AS FAST AS THE VESSEL CAN RECEIVE/DELIVER  Means that the lay-time is calculated by reference to the maximum rat at which the ship in full working order is capable of loading or discharging the cargo, that is, as fast as she can or with customary (quick) dispatch. The term appears in a C/P when lay-time is not fixed (indefinite) and is left to the custom of the port.
ASABOSA Association of Ships' Agents & Brokers.

ASBA The Association of Shipbrokers and Agents (U.S.A.) Incorporated, New York.
ASSIGNMENT A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading.  It involves the transfer of  rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading.
ASTERN Behind a vessel  /  move in a reverse direction
AT AND FROM This expression in a voyage policy implies that where a ship or cargo is insured "at and from" a particular port and she arrives in the port safely with the intention of proceseeding on the insured voyage when the contract is concluded, the risk attaches immediately. If the vessel is not in the port when the contract is concluded, the risk attaches as soon as she arrives there safely and, unless the policy provides otherwise, it is immaterial whether she is covered by another policy for a specified time after arrival.
ATHWARTSHIPS At right angels to the centerline of the ship
AUDITING  Determining the correct transportation charges due the carrier; auditing involves checking the freight bill for errors, correct rate, and weight. 
AUSTALIAN HOLD LADDERS  All vessels trading with Australia must be provided with ladders acceptable to waterside workers’ federation/ unions in that country. These ladders are so constructed as to prevent fatigue due to platforms at regular intervals. Vessels without such type of ladders can be penalized or delayed.
AUTOMATIC PILOT  An instrument that controls automatically a vessel's steering gear to enable her to follow a pre-determined track through the water. 
AVERAGE  Any loss or damage due to insured perils that is less than a total loss. Two types of average occur: Particular Average and General Average.
AVERAGING LAYTIME  To average means to make separate calculations for lading and discharging and any time saved in one operation can be set off against any excess time used in the other. The option to average lay time is given to the charterer.
AWKARD CARGO  Cargo of irregular size that either be containerised (packed in container) or uncontainerised (without equipment associated with) in the transport. They require prior approval on case by case basis before confirmation of booking.
AWRI (Additional War Risk Insurance) This is an extra amount paid to the owner of a time-charterer vessel if the ship is ordered to a port or an area in which war or hostilities are taking place and the shipowner's insurance require an additional insurance premium for the vessel to be considered to be covered against risks in that place.
BACK FREIGHT  Freight charged for the return of goods which have not been accepted at the port of destination. Also applied to goods discharged at another convenient port.
BACK HAUL Abbreviation for ‘Bunker Adjustment Factor”.  Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs.  Sometimes called “Fuel Adjustment Factor” of FAF.
BACK LETTER Back letters may be draen up to complement a contract in other to lay down rights and/or obligations between both contracting parties, which, for some reason or other, cannot be included on the original contract. This expression is also used for "letters of indemnity".
BACKLOADING On a voyage charter the charterer may wish to have the opportunity to load another cargo at a port of discharge and then discharge this second cargo at any discharge port in an agreed range of ports. Without a Backloading clause, charterer do not enjoy this option. 
BAGGED CARGO  Various kinds of commodities usually packed in sacks or in bags, such as sugar, cement, milk powder, onion, grain, flour, etc. Also referred to as breakbulk.
BAGGING OF CARGO A charterparty may contain a clause which stipulates that if the charterers load grain in bulk, they must supply to the master on his request sufficient empty bags to be used to collect any grain which wa spilled and any grain which remained in the cargo space after discharge.
BALANCE OF TRADE  The difference between a country's total imports and exports; if exports exceed imports, favorable balance of trade exists, if not, a trade deficit is said to exist.
BALE CAPACITY  The cubic capacity of a ship’s holds below deck, expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters, available for the carriage of break bulk type of cargoes, e.g.., packages, bales, cartons, cartons, drums, pallets, etc., which are not capable of filling the space between the ship’s frames.
BALESPACE This balespace of a vessel is the volume capacity of cargo spaces under deck (including hatchways), expressed in cubic feet or cubic metres. The balespace is obtained as follows: Lengh of each hold multiplied by breadth (measured to inside of cargo battens at half length of the hold) multiplied by depth (measured from top of ceiling to underside of beams).
BALLAST  Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo.
BALLAST BONUS  Sum of money paid by a time charterer to a ship-ownerr (in a good market) to compensate him for not finding a cargo near the place of re-delivery of the ship at the end of the charter. The bonus serves as an incentive for the ballast (empty) trip to cover up the cost of fuel and time. At times a ship-owner pay pat the charterer a ballast bonus when the vessel is being re-delivered at the end of time charter, specially when market is not good for the ship-owner.
BALLAST MOVEMENT  A voyage or voyage leg made without any paying cargo in a vessel's tanks. To maintain proper stability, trim, or draft, seawater is usually carried during such movements.
BALLAST TANK  Compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides which are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. Any shipboard tank or compartment on a tanker normally used for carrying salt-water ballast. When these compartments or tanks are not connected with the cargo system, they are called segregated ballast tanks or systems. 
BALLEST DISCHARGE Ballast discharge refers to discharge of sea water stores in the ship’s cargo holds, when a ship has to sail without cargo.
BALTIME A Uniform standard-form time charter published by BIMCO. In 1974 another edition included a box-type fokrmat for main details and descriptive text for the clauses. BALTIME generally favours the shipowners' side and contrasts the NYPE, the New York Produce Exchange From of time charter, which tends to favour the charterer' side.
BANK  underwater plateau that rises up from the ocean floor, creating shallow water where fish feed. 
BANK GUARANTEE Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to be used in lieu of lost or misplaced original negotiable bill of lading.
BAR DRAFT  This relates to the maximum draft enabling a vessel to pass over a bar, e.g., Martin Garcia bar in the River Plate. In case the vessel has too great a draft, it will have to discharge part of the cargo into barges and then reload it after passing the bar. A similar situation exists at Yangon (formerly Rangoon). Such ports are called bar-ports.
BAREBOAT / DEMISE CHARTER  Lease of a ship wherein the charterer takes over the ship together with the rigid of management and control. In fact, it becomes the virtual owner of the vessel during the term of the charter. Charter has the right to engage and pay the master and crew who are his employees. The ship-owner merely receives compensation as hire payments.
BARGE   A large, flat-bottomed boat used to carry cargo from a port to shallow-draft waterways. Barges have no locomotion and are pushed by towboats. A single, standard barge can hold 1,500 tons of cargo or as much as either 15 railroad cars or 60 trucks can carry. A barge is 200 feet long, 35 feet wide and has a draft of 9 feet. Barges carry dry bulk (grain, coal, lumber, gravel, etc.) and liquid bulk (petroleum, vegetable oils, molasses, etc.).
BARGE CARRIERS  Ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels, the LASH, and the SEABEE. 
BARGE JETTIES Barge jetties are typically RCC structures that are erected on the waterfront to handle loading and unloading of cargoes on to barges using grab cranes.
BARRATRY An act committed by the master of mariners of a vessel, for some unlawful or fraudulent purpose, contrary to their duty to the owners, whereby the latter sustain injury.  It may include negligence, if so gross as to evidence fraud.
BARREL (BBL) A term of measure referring to 42 gallons of liquid at 600 degrees.
BASE RATE A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.
BASIC FREIFHT Ocean freight excludes all charges.
BB This abbrevation can be and is used for a variety of different terms such as: "Ballast Bonus", "Below bridge", "Breaking bulk" and "Bulbous bow"
BBB "Before breaking bulk", that is, before commencing discharge of opening of the ship's hatches. This indicates a time for some formality to take place.
BEAM The width of a ship.
BEAM TRAWLING  method of fishing which uses a beam to hold open a net at its mouth. 
BEARER BILL OF LADING This document allows the goods to be delivered to the holder of it. The name of the consignee, to whom the goods have been sent, perhaps the buyer, may be stated as "bearer". It may also be an "Order bill of lading" without stating to whose specific order the bill, and delivery of cargo under it, are subject or it could be an "Order bill of lading" indorse in blank, that is without identifying to whom the cargo should be delivered.
BEAUFORT SCALE  A scale of wind force expressed from 0 to 12 in which weather conditions represent with conditions expressed in numerals, where 0 means calm wind (less that I knot speed) and 12 refers to hurricane (speed between 64 to 71 knots). This term is used mostly in time charter parties, as vessels are not penalized for non-performance of speed in case wind speed is more than the agreed Beaufort number.
BEFORE BREAKING BULK  Refers to the time when freight is paid. In this case freight is to be paid any time before commencement of discharge.
BELLY CARGO  It is a term for freight accommodation below the main deck.
BELOW  beneath or under the deck. 
BELOW BRIDGES  If a ship has to pass under a bridge across a canal to reach the port or berth it has to ensure that its draft permits the vessel to have sufficient clearance above its highest point to pass under the bridge with ease.
BENIFICIAL OWNER This is the real owner of a ship, one who obtains the ultimate, real benefit that comes form owning it. This would be the owner who has chartered his ship out to others who may act as if they are the owner.
BENEFICIARY  The person in whose favor a draft is issued or a letter of credit opened.
BERTH  The specific place where ships are anchored for loading and/or discharging at the docks in a port.
BERTH CHARTER  If a vessel chartered for loading on a particular berth, the contract is called berth charter. The term berth charter implies that notice of readiness cannot be given until the vessel is in the designated berth as required by the charterers.
BERTH HIRE CHARGES Berth hire charges form part of the port-related dues claimed by the port authorities, which relate to the fees charged to a shipping line towards hiring of the berths for cargo unloading and loading operations at a port.  The discharge rates are calculated on the basis of number of berths engaged by a shipping line and the duration of a berth hire in terms of berth days or hours.
BERTH LINER SERVICE  Is a regular scheduled steamship line with regular published schedules (port of call ) from and to defined trade areas
BERTH NOTE OR BOOKING NOTE Fixtures of vessels on "berth note" are now very uncommon. Such berth notes or booking-notes referred to shipment of a part cargo. In the early days, the master of the ship could sign a letter of from giving fundamental details of the ship. The note was endorsed latery by the owners, agents or disponent owners (charterers)
BERTH OR LINER TERMS  Is an expression covering assessment of ocean freight rates generally implying that loading and discharging expenses will be for ship owner's account, and usually apply from the end of ship's tackle in port of loading to the end of ship's tackle in port of discharge
BERTH RATES OR LINER RATES These expressions related the freight rates applying to shipments by regular lines engaged in the trade in question. These freight rates become "standard" for a particular liner route and particular cargo.
BERTH TERMS  Also referred to as “liner terms”. The Ship-owner pays for loading and discharging subject to the custom of the port or as fast as the ship can handle the cargo or under customary dispatch.
BILATERAL A contract term meaning both parities agree to provide something for the other.
BILGE The bilge of a vessel with double bottom tanks is a triangular channel on both sides formed by the margin plate of a double bottom, the curvature of the outer skin of the vessel and the blige ceiling. The bilge ceiling can be regarded as a continutaion of the ceiling on the tank top. More simply, the redius part of the shell plating joining the bottom and the side sehll is the "bilge".
BILL OF HEALTH The Bill of Health is the certificate that used to be issued by the local authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port of departure of ports of call. Before sailing, the Bill of Health was given a visa by the Consul of the country of destinaiton. International Health Regulaition now apply, and Bills of Health are no longer very common, but not all contries are bound by these.In some countries Bills of Health issued by the Consuls of those countries may be officially required.
BILL OF LADING  The document issued on behalf of the carrier describing the kind and quantity of goods being shipped, the shipper, the consignee, the ports of loading and discharge and the carrying vessel. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods.
BILLING A carrier terminal activity that determines the proper rate and total charges for a shipment and issues a freight bill. 
BIMCO Baltic and International Maritime Council, to which many shipowners and brokers belong.
BLACK LIST  List of countries published by a government which will not allow ships to trade at its ports if they have traded at ports in the countries on that list.
BLANKET WAYBILL A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight.
BLOCK COEFFICIENT The block coefficient of a vessel is obtained by dividing the underwater volume of displacement of a ship by the volume of a block of the same length and breadth, and of height equal to the draught of the ship. The block coefficient depends upon the "lines" of the ship. Passenger vessels with fine lines have a lower block coefficient than cargo ships with full lines. The abbreviation for Block Coefficient is generally given as Cb.
BLOCKADE Belligerent powers have the right of blockade, i.e., the right to blockade enmy ports or coastal territory for ocean shipping by military measures. The blockade must be respected by natural states. Running a blockade, if unsuccessfull, may entail boarging and searching for contraband and confiscation of ship and cargo.
BLUE CERTIFICATE This is a document that may be carried by a ship; it indicates that the shipwoner has entered into an agreement with the ITF (the International Transport Workers' Federation) that the crew are being paid wages and salaries which are specified by the ITF.
BOATSWAIN (BOSUN)  The highest unlicensed rating on the ship with charge of all deck hands and who in turn comes under the direct orders of the master or chief mate or mate.
BOILERS Steam generating units used aboard ship to provide steam for propulsion and for heating and other auxiliary purposes. 
BOLLARD  A line-securing device on a wharf around which mooring and berthing lines are fastened
BONA FIDE "Good faith", This is a legal term that comes from the Latin language and suggests honesy or sincerity. For a charter fixture one side must give bona fide information about the sip or the cargo to the other side. (See also Professional shipbroking ethics.)
BONDED WAREHOUSE  A building authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
BONDED STORES Ship's stores which can be delivered under special amangements direct from a bonded werehouse to the vessel without payment fo Customs duties.
BOOKING OFFICE Conference lines, operating in certain trades, may decide to establish a booking office to take bookings and also ensure that each line carries its agreed share. Shippers may not be permitted to insist on carriage by a specific line athough the booking office may try to meet shippers' wishes n this respect as much as possible.
BOOKING WAREHOUSE A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
BOOM long piece of wood which runs perpendicular to the mast, to which the foot (bottom edge) of the sail is attatched. 
BOOST Build-Own-Operate Share-Transfer (BOOST) is a contractual modality, where in an investor  is involved along with the licensor is involved in building an infrastructure facility, owning and operating the facility for the stipulated period of lease and shares the facility with the licensor and finally transfers the ownership of assets back to the licensor, after the expiry of the lease period.
BOOT LAW (GUJARAT) Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) is a mode of  contract for taking up infrastructure related projects that has been adopted under a specially enacted legislation of the Gujarat government, wherein private investor builds the infrastructure facility, owns and operates the facility for a stipulated lease period and transfers ownership back to the licensor after the lease period in over.
BOOT TOPPING The boot topping is part of the ourtside shell of the vessel between the light and loaded draught, that is, part of the hull which is exposed alternately to wind and water. Moreover, the vessel's berthing and unberthing and also tugs' rubbing against the ship in the arrival and departure from ports lead to several abrasion in this region.
BOT Build-Own-Transfer (BOT) is one of the modes of financing an infrastructure project, where in private investor builds the infrastructure facility, operates it for a specified lease period and has to finally transfer the ownership rights to the licensor after the expiry of the agreed lease period.
BOTH-TO-BLAME COLLISION CLAUSE. This is a clause found in both voyage and time charterparties and aloso in bills of lading. It is a protective clause, to give protection to one side. For example, a typical clause in a charterparty can state;
BOTH ENDS  The term means that the arrangements agreed upon hold true both at loading and discharging ports, e.g., rate of loading and discharging; appointment of agents, etc.
BOTTOM SIDE RAILS Structural members on the longitudinal sides of the base of the container.
BOW The front of a vessel.
BOW THRUSTERS  A propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship, which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a manoeuvring aid. 
BOX  A term used for a container.
BOXTIME Standard BIMVO time charter for container ships.
BOYCOTT CLAUSE A charterer may insist that a charterparty contains a clause which causes the shipowner ot take the risks if the vessel is delayed by a "boycott" by labour. For example, waterside woekers (stevedores) who belong to a union which is affiliated with the Internaitonal Transport Workers' Federation, (ITF), may combine to refuse to handle cargo or to refuse to allow a vessel to handle cargo if the shipowner does not have an ITF-apporved collective agreement with the crew and does not possess a "Blue Certificate".
BRACKISH WATER ARRIVAL DRAFT  Brackish is spoken of water in a river when partly salt and partly fresh. It has a density between that of fresh water (1000 kgs/cubic metre) and that of salt water (1025 kgs/cubic metre). When a ship proceeds to a brackish water port, the ship’s draft will be more than the draft in salt water and less than the draft in fresh water.
BREADTH MOULDED This expression relates to the maximum breadth of a ship measured amidships between the outside (heels) of the frames, i.e. to the inside of shell plating.
BREAK BULK  Describes loose cargo, such as cartons, bales, boxes, packages, etc stowed directly in the ship’s hold as opposed to containerized or bulk cargo.
BREAK BULK CARGO  Cargo that is shipped as a unit or package (for example: palletized cargo, boxed cargo, large machinery, trucks) but is not containerized. 
BREAK BULK VESSEL  A vessel designed to handle break bulk cargo
BREAKDOWN CLAUSE Time charterparties contain a clause providing that if the ship is unavailable for the charterer's use because there is loss of time as a result of "…breakdown or damages to hull, machinery or equipment…" (among other causes) payment of the hire money to the shipowner ceases for all or some of the time lost.
BREAKING BULK  The expression means “to start the discharge.”
BROKEN STOWAGE  The space wasted in a ship’s holds when stowing general cargo which is uneven and packed.
BROKER (SHIP)  A shipbroker acts as a middleman between the ship owner and the charterer and negotiates the terms of a C/P. He represents one party (say, ship owner) and negotiates with the other party (charterer) directly or with another broker who represents the charterer. (A sale and purchase broker negotiates for the sale of a ship and represents the ship owner). 
BROKERAGE  Brokerage is a commission paid to the shipbroker by the ship owner for the broker’s time, effort and expenses in concluding a (successful) fixture, normally a certain percentage of the hire of freight earned by the ship owner.
BUFFER YARD Buffer yard refers to a port side warehousing of mainly of mainly factory stuffed containers that directly arrive at the port for the being loaded on to bur need to be temporarily stored till the ship is berthed for loading in the port.
BUILDER'S CERTIFICATE As the name of indicates, this certificate is ussued by the shipbuilding yard, containing a true account of the estimated tonnage; the year details. This certificate is required in additon to the declaration of ownership, on the first registry of the ship.
BULBOUS BOW The shape of the foremost portion of the ship, the bow, in the form of a around bulb instead of the traditiona V-shape, in order to reduce bull resistance and its effect on speed in the water.
BULK  Goods carried in the hold of ships and not in containers.
BULK - Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped unpackaged either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products. Bulk service generally is not provided on a regularly scheduled basis, but rather as needed, on specialized ships, transporting a specific commodity.
BULK CARGO Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count. Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight
BULK CARRIER  There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier, and the liquid-bulk carrier, better known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.
BULK-FREIGHT CONTAINER A container with a discharge hatches in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried.
BULK SHIPMENTS  Shipments which are not packaged, but are loaded directly into the vessel’s holds. Examples of commodities that can be shipped in bulk are ores, coal, scrap, iron, grain, rice, vegetable oil, tallow, fuel oil, fertilizers, and similar commodities.
BULKHEAD A partition separating one part of a ship, freight car, aircraft or truck from another part.
BUNDLING  This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel, Handrails, Stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift truck.
BUNKER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR  A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
BUNKER CHARGE An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs.  Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF.
BUNKERS  Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
BUOYANCY  Ability to float or rise in a fluid. 
BUOYS Floats that warn of hazards such as rocks or shallow ground, to help ships maneuver through unfamiliar harbors.
BUTTERWORTH TANK CLEANING SYSTEM This is a mehtod for cleaning and grasfreeing oil tanks by means of high pressure jets of water, either cold or hcated. The apparatus consists essentially of double opposed nozzles which rotate slowly about their horizantal and verticle axes, projecting two high pressure streams of water against all inside surface of the deck, bulkheads, tank framing and shell plating.
C.C.E.F. Is a Customs Centralized Examination Facility.
CABLE SHIP  A specially constructed ship for the laying and repairing of telegraph and telephone cables across channels, seas, lakes, and oceans.
CABOTAGE Water transportation term applicable to shipments between ports of a nation; commonly refers to coastwise or inter coastal navigation or trade.  Many nations, including the United States, have cabotage laws which require national flag vessels to provide domestic interport service.
CABOTAGE POLICIES  Reservation of a country's coastal (domestic) shipping for its own flag vessels.
CAF Abbreviation for “Currency Adjustment Factor.” A change, expressed as a percentage of a base rate that is applied to compensate ocean carriers of currency fluctuations.
CAGE The transporting of goods by truck to or from a vessel, aircraft, or bonded warehouse, all under customs custody.
CALCULABLE LAYTIME  By doing certain tonnage and hatch calculations one can work out the exact lay time available for cargo operations.
CALENDAR MONTH  A month according to a calendar, e.g., if a vessel is taken up on time charter for say 6 months and has been delivered on 10th June, the charter will expire on 10th December.
CALLS OR  PREMIUMS Some mutual associations term the payments for cover as "call" while others terms as "premiums". The concept of mutuality is that each member protects the others and this is done by levying "calls" rather than the businessman's "premium". Indeed, section 85 (2) of the Marine Insurance Act prevents "premium" being used for mutual insurance but a guarantee or such other arrangement may be substituted for the prmium.
CANCELLING DATE  The date, mutually agreed upon between the ship-owner and the charterer, on which the vessel must be ready to lad at the latest is called the canceling date. Should the vessel miss her canceling date, the charterers are entitled to cancel the C/P
Assuring that needed resources (e.g., manufacturing capacity, distribution center capacity, transportation vehicles, etc.) will be available at the right time and place to meet logistics and supply chain needs
CAPESIZE A term used to describe a ship, usually a dry or wet bulker, that is too large to transit the canals and as a consequence must travel via the 'capes', ie Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn.
CAPESIZE  Vessels too large for the Panama and/or the Suez Canal are termed Capesize.
CAPITAL BERTHS Captive berths refer to those dedicated berths in a port that are exclusively reserved by a single used for loading and unloading of cargo of cargo, under a special contract agreement with the port authority / operator.  Some times the shipping lines that have regular movements of their ships at a particular port may also have a captive berth to avoid normal berthing delays.
CAPITAL DREDGING Capital dredging activity in ports mainly refers to dredging of the approach channel and port basins, which are normally taken up on a one time basis for creation of basic physical infrastructure of port.  Capital dredging projects are also typically highly cost-intensive and considered as part of the capital expenditure of ports.
CAPTAIN’S PROTEST A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at ports; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company.
CARGO  Goods, merchandise or commodities of every description which may be carried aboard a vessel, in consideration of the freight charged; does not include provisions and stores for use on board.
CARGO AND BILLS OF LADING The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or indorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possiblity of the carrier. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.
CARGO DWELL TIME Cargo dwell time refers to the total time taken by cargo after it is ready to be loaded till it is actually  loaded on to a ship or total time taken before cargo is taken out of the port after being unloaded from ships.
CARGO HANDLING  Reserving a portion of a nation's imports and exports to national-flag vessels. 
CARGO LIABILITIES Loss of or damage to cargo carried in the member's ship. Cargo proportion of general average or salvage not recoverable by virtue of a breach of the contract for carriage.
CARGO  MANIFEST A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage.
CARGO OIL PUMP (COP) This is a pump used on board tankers for discharging cargo and loading of discharging ballast. The pumps are usually located at the bottom of the pump room and can be of various types, e.g. the centrifugal turbine type of the steam-driven reciprocating, duplex type.
CARGO PLAN  A plan giving the quantities and description of the various grades carried in the ship's cargo tanks, after the loading is completed.
CARGO PREFERENCE  Reserving a portion of a nation's imports and exports to national-flag vessels. 
CARGO QUALITY A description in the bill of lading as to the quality of goods does not bind the carrier. The person signing and issuing the bull of lading is not considered to have the expertise not the duty to ascertain quality. The shipowner can adduce evidence to show that the goods were not of the quality stated on the bull of lading.
CARGO RECEIPT  Is a receipt of cargo for shipment by a consolidator (used in ocean freight).
CARGO RELATED CHARGES Cargo related charges refers to port dues payable on  account  of cargo loading and unloading operations, including its movements to the port-side storage area.
CARNET  A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration, or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds.
CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT (C.O.G.S.A.)  1936 U.S. Statute that governs the acts that a carrier is responsible for and defines the terms used in shipping. The act provides that the ship owner’s liability will be limited to $500 per shipping package, and it stipulates a one-year time limit for filing suit against the carrier. This act automatically applies to international ocean movements but not to domestic ocean transits unless the carrier agrees to be bound by it.
CARRIER, COMMON A public or privately owned firm or corporation that transports the goods of others over land, sea, or through the air, for a stated freight rate. By government regulation, a common carrier is required to carry all goods offered if accommodations are available and the established rate is paid.
CARRIER(s) Containers or Shipper(s) Containers The term Carrier(s) Container(s) or Shipper(s) Container(s) means containers over which the carrier or the shipper has control either by ownership or by the acquisition thereof under lease or rental from container companies or container suppliers or from similar sources. Carriers are prohibited from purchasing, leasing or renting shipper owned containers.
CARRIER  Usually means Steamship Company, but can also refer to trucking company, airline, or railroad as transporter of cargo.
CARRIERS  Owners or operators of vessels providing transportation to shippers. The term is also sometimes used to refer to the vessels, i.e. ore carriers.
CARTEL This is a price-fixing body formed of providers of suppliers of goods or services. A liner conference can be considered to be a cartel to fix the freight rates.
CASH AGAINST DOCUMENTS (CAD) Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment pf cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house.
CASH FLOW Cash flow represents the total funds that corparation generate internally for investment in the modernsation and expasnion of the fleet or fot making an acceptable profit. This is a menthod of caliculating the revenue agaist the expenses. For vessels, the revenue consists fo either or hire and the expenses can be classified and separated into different caragories.
CASH IN ADVANCE (CIA) A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods.  Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order.
CASH WITH ORDER (CWO)  A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.
CATEGORY OF LAYTIME Separate calculation for loading and discharging ports or options to the charterer for reversing or averaging laytime; who time sheets may still be required.
CBM (CM)  Abbreviation for “Cubic Meter.”
CEILING The ceiling consists of wooden plants laid on top of the double bottom tanks. The planks are laid longitudinally and prevent contact between the cargo and the double bottom.
CENTISTOKES  Describes viscosity of fuel oils—380 c/s or 180 c/s (better). The greater the number of centistokes, the higher the viscosity of the oil and cheaper the cost. (Viscosity is the ability of liquid to resist flow, e.g., honey is more viscous than lemon juice).
CENTRE OF BUOYANCE (B) This is the geometric centre of the under water shape or volume of a floating object. The buoyancy force provide by the liquid in which the object floats acts vertically upwards through B.
CENTRE OF GRAVITY The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck train or a piece of cargo.
CENTRELINE BULKHEAD Some general cargo, tramp vessels, were fitted with centreline bulkhads extending from the bulkheads to the hatchways. Apart from increasing the longituding strength, such centreline bulkheads mean a considerable saving in expenses of shifting boards required by vessels carrying grain in bulk. Such graintinght shifting board only to be fitted in the lower holds over a distance equal to the lenght of the hatchways.
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION  A document often required with shipments of perishable or other goods, when certification notes the good condition of the merchandise immediately prior to shipment.
CERTIFICATE OF MANUFACTURE  A statement sometimes notarized by a producer, usually also the seller or merchandiser that indicates the goods have been manufactured and are at the disposal of the buyer.
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN  A specified document, required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes, certifying the country of origin of the merchandise. Sometimes requires the signature of the consul of the country to which it is destined.
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRY  A document specifying the nation registry of the vessel.
CFS Abbreviation for “Container Freight Station.”  A shipping dock cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers.  Generally, this involves less than container load shipments, although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated.  Container reloading from / to tail or motor carrier equipment a typical activity.  These facilities can be located in container yards, or off dock.
CFS (Container Freight Station) The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be packed into containers by the carrier. At discharge ports, the term CFS means the bonded location designated by carriers in the port area for unpacking and delivery of cargo.
CFS CHARGE (Container Freight Charge) The term CFS Charge means the charge assessed for services performed at the loading or discharging port in packing or unpacking of cargo into/from containers at CFS.
CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier) The term CFS/CFS means cargo delivered by break-bulk to Carrier's CFS to be packed by Carrier into containers and to be unpacked by Carrier from the container at Carrier's destination port CFS.
CHANDLER  A person who deals in the selling of provisions, dried stores, etc.
CHARGEABLE WEIGHT   The shipment weight used in determining freight charges. The chargeable weight may be the dimensional weight or, for container shipments, the gross weight of the shipment less the tare weight of the container. 
CHART DATUM  Water level calculated on the lowest tide that can ever occur and used as a basis for chart measurements.
CHART  a map of part of the sea, showing currents, depths, islands, coasts, etc. 
CHARTER Hiring out of a ship by a shipowner.
CHARTER PARTY  A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the one (the charterer) desiring to empty the vessel, setting forth the terms of the arrangement, i.e., freight rate and ports involved in the contemplated trip.
CHARTERER The person who has chartered the ship for a specified period of time.
CHARTERERS' BILL OF LADING The relationship between charterparties and bill of lading can range from a simple one, where the bill of lading from a shipowner to a charterer/shipper has the status only of a receipt for cargo, to a complex one, where, for example, a charterer issues a bill of lading on his own form but includes a "demise clause" which states thet the person issuing the bull of lading is not the owner nor demise-charterer of vessel and the holder of the bull of lading is then ledt with the uncertainty of whom to sue for loss, damage or delay of the cargo carriage under the bill of lading.
CHARTERING Chartering is an agreement, whereby one party, the owner,  puts a ship or a part of it at the disposal of another party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods between named. The charterer can turn, sublet the ship or a part of it to a third party, who now becomes the “Disponent Owner”. The chartering agreement is contained in a document, called “Charter Party”. In most countries, chartering agreements are governed by local legislation.
CHARTERING AGENTS  They are specially appointed by large importers or exporters to book space or vessels for their shipments. All enquiries for tonnage are placed in the hands of these chartering agents to the exclusion of any other broker. The chartering agents act as intermediaries for their principals.
CHEMICAL TANKER  Ship specially designed for the transport of chemicals. 
CHIEF ENGINEER  The senior engineer officer responsible for the satisfactory working and upkeep of the main and auxiliary machinery and boiler plant on board ship.
CHOCK A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways.
CIF (cost, insurance and freight)
Seller is responsible for inland freight, ocean/air freight, and marine/air insurance to the port of final entry in the buyer's country. The buyer is responsible for inland transportation to his or her location.
CIM  The full, French name for this internaitonal Convention which relates to the carriage of goods by rail is "Convention International Concernmantle Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer". The CIM Convention applies mostly to intermodal transport in Europe. The contract of carriage under the CIM is the "CIM consignment nore", similar to a bill of lading for ocean carriage.
CLAIM A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its alleged negligence.
CLASS RATES A class of goods or commodities is a large grouping of various items under one general heading. All items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items in the class are called class rates.
CLASSIFICATION  Is a customs term. The placement of an item under the correct number in the customs tariff for duty purposes. At times this procedure becomes highly complicated; it is not uncommon for importers to resort to litigation over the correct duty to be assessed by the customs on a given item.
CLASSIFICATION RATING The designation provided in a classification by which a class is determined.
CLASSIFICATION  SOCIETY An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessel offered for insurance or employment.
CLEAN BILL OF LADING A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in “apparent good order and condition,” without damage or other  irregularities.  If no notation or exception is made, the B / L is assumed to be “cleaned.”
CLEAN BALLAST   A charterparty can include a clause requiring the vessel to arrive in a loading port with only "clean ballast". In many ports there are inadquate reception facilites for dirty ballast before loading and ships are restricted from discharging dirty ballast at sea.
CLEAN BALLAST TANKS  Water carried in a tanker or tanks which have no traces of oil. Hence such water is referred to as clean ballast. Tanks carrying the water are therefore clean ballast tanks.
CLEAN CHARTER This is a rather vague expression usually intended to convey that there are no invidious or unusual terms in the charterparty. If no other deductions are made from the freight, other than tha customary brokerage and commission, or if no alternations have been made in the standard charterparties-detrimental to shipowners-the term "clean charter" is used.
CLEAN SHIP  Refers to tankers which have their cargo tanks free of traces of dark persistent oils, which remain after carrying crudes and heavy fuel oils.
CLEAR DAY/S  Means that the day on which the notice is given and the day on which the notice expires are not included in the notice period.
CLEAT A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place.
CLIP-ON Refrigeration equipment attachable to an  insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit.
CLOSING DATE The closing date for a vessel is the latest date for delivery of goods for shipment on board the fessel. This expression is generally used in the sailing schedules or advertisements of regular liner services.
CMR (CONVENTION MARCHANDISE ROUTIERS) The French name is for an international Convention agreed in Geneva in 1956, which governs the terms and conditions under a contract for the goods by road.
COASTAL REGULATION ZONES (CRZ) Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) are areas demarcated under the Environment Protection Act, where there are a number of restriction imposed on construction of nay artificial structure with a view to protect the marine ecology, including various forms of marine life and ecological system.
COASTAL SERVICE or COASTWISE  Domestic shipping routes along a single coast. 
COASTING VESSELS Coasting vessels are exclusively engaged in the carriage of cargo and passengers between any ports or places in India and are licenced to operate under the coasting licencing provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act 1958.  Such vessels also include vessels of the Coast Guard and Indian Navy.
COASTWISE Water transportation along the coast.
CODE OF LINER CONDUCT (UNCTAD A convention drafted under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development which provides that all shipping traffic between two foreign countries is to be regulated as far as the quantities of shipments are concerned on the following percentages -- 40% for owners of the country of origin, 40% for owners of country of destination, and 20% for owners of the country which is neither the origin nor the destination. 
COEFFICIENT OF FINENESS OF WATERPLANE AREA (Cw)  This is the ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a rectangle of the length and maximum breadth of the vessel's waterplane. This will vary with draught.
COFFERDAM In oil tankers the oil tanks are separated from the engine room by means of a cofferdam formed by two transverse bulkheads. The cofferdam extends over the entire breadth of the vessel and prvents leakage from the oil tanks to the engine room desel-oil bunkers. The pump rooms also separated from adjacent tanks by cofferdams.
COILED SHIP This ship type would most probably be an oil tankers or a tankers to carry liquids in bulk. It would be provided with cails through which steam is passed to heat the liquid to reduce its "viscosity" and enable it to be pumped more easily.
COLLECT FREIGHT  Freight payable at destination provided the vessel delivers the goods as specified.
COLLECTION A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instruction concerning processing for payment or acceptance.
COLLIER Vessel used for transporting coal.
COLLIERY A "colliery" is a coal mine and in voyage charterers for the carriage of coal the laytime agreed may depend on the working hours of the mine, if the coal cargo has to be delivered to the vessel. The word is connected to expressins that affect laytime.
COLLIERY GUARANTEE This is an undertaking in a contract between the colliery owners and the charterer or shipowner. The colliery agree to supply the cargo and load the vessel on usual colliery terms. If a reference to "colliery guarantee" is incorporated in a coal chatererparty the charterer is relieved from any liability for delay to the vessel if the colliery does not supply the coal within the agreed laytime.
COLLIERY SCALE Scale rates can be incorporated into a charterparty depending on the place of loading. These are rates which are set by organisations which publish standard-from charterparties after descussion with shipowners and colliries at the ports of loading. The scale rates also contain rates for demurrage.
COLLIERY TURN This refers to the order in which vessels are taken into the loading and/or discharging berth. This may change the requirements for the commencement of laytime. Normally, time does not count during turn time. This may be an advantage if the coal suppliers and charterers are connected with a colliery. The "turn"-or position in the loading sequence-may depend on the vessel's arrival being reported to the appropriate authorities or on the readiness of the colliery or supply a particular cargo.
COLLIERY WORKING DAYS This is a description of type of laytime depending on the ordinary working hours fo the colliery from which the coal will be delivered to the vessel. The working days are related to normal times and in rormal circumstances. Colliery holidays will be "holidays" if an exception to laytime exists in the charterparty (for example, "Sundays and Holidays excepted"). If the working in a colliery are on strike, the delay is not excepted form tha laytime, unless, of course, there is an appropriate "strike clause", unless a Sunday or holiday occurs during the strike.
COLLISION AND DOCK DAMAGE Excess collision liability. Proportion of collision liability relating to wreck removal, dock damage or oil pollution caused by the other ship.
COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM  Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in inland navigable waterways.
COMBI  A ship specifically designed to carry both containers and conventional cargoes.
COMBIDOC  Combined transport document issued by the Baltic and International Maritime Conference (BIMCO)
COMBINATION VESSELS  Container/Break-bulk vessel - this type of ship accommodates both container and break-bulk cargo. It can be either self sustaining or non-self sustaining.
COMBINED TRANSPORT OPERATOS (CTO) This is a carrier who offers the services of carriage by more than one mode of transport.
COMMENCEMNT OF LAYTIME  Lay time is said to commence once a vessel has arrived at a port, complied with all stipulations and tendered the notice of readiness as specified in the C/P
COMMERCIAL INVOICE  A statement of transaction between a seller and buyer prepared by the seller, and a description of the merchandise, price, terms, etc.
COMMERCIAL SET  Set of four “negotiable” documents that represents and takes the place of the goods themselves in the financing of the cargo sales transaction.
COMMISSION PAST US  Implies that the quote does not include the normal commission for the brokers quoting the order.
COMMODITY Article shipped for dangerous and hazardous cargo  the correct commodity identification  is critical.
COMMODITY RATE A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles.
COMMON CARRIER A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates.
COMMON CARRIER  Transporter who holds himself out to the general public for the transportation of goods over a definite route and according to a regular schedule.
COMMON LAW Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with references to the laws of England and the United States.
COMPASS An instrument for showing the directions of north, south, west, & east. 
COMPLEMENT  The number of officers and crew employed upon a vessel for its safe navigation and operation.
CONBULKER This is a type of vessel that can carry containers on one leg of a voyage and bulk cargo on the return leg. The structure of the vessel permits the cargoes to be changed easily.
CONCOR Container Corporation of India (COCOR) is a subsidiary of Indian railways handling bulk of the rail based movement of container in and out of ports and ICDs in India.
CONFERENCE An association of ship owners operating in the same route who operate under collective conditions and agree on tariff rates.
CONFERENCE and CONFERENCE LINES  An affiliation of shipowners operating over the same route(s) who agree to charge uniform rates and other terms of carriage. A conference is "closed" if one can enter only by the consent of existing members of the conference. It is "open" if anyone can enter by meeting certain technical and financial standards. 
CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity had been confirmed by a domestic bank.  An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
CONGESTION  In order to avoid loss to owners due to non-availability of the berth or waiting at the anchorage, C/Ps specify that the notice of readiness can be tendered by the master “whether in berth or not (wibon), whether in free pratique or not (wifpon), and whether customs cleared or not (wccon)
CONNECTING CARRIER AGGREMENT A connecting carrier agreement is a contract between the originating carrier and a second party, where the second part agrees to carry goods to a final destination on a through Bill of lading.
CONNECTING CARRIERS A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers.
CONSECUTIVE VOYAGES  A named vessel may be employed on a series of voyages called consecutive voyages against a single C/P. The vessel proceeds loaded from loading to discharging port only to return in ballast and repeat the following voyage on same terms and conditions until all the cargo has been shipped. However, separate calculations of freight and lay time are made for the individual voyages. It differs from a COA where the ship-owner can use any ship and the freight rates take into account the cost of ballast return voyage from discharge to load port.
CONSIGNEE  Party who is to receive the good; usually the buyer.
CONSIGNEE MARK A symbol placed on package  for identification  purposes; generally a triangle, square. Circe, etc. with letters and / or numbers and port of discharge.
CONSIGNMENT  Merchandise shipped to a foreign agent or customer when an actual purchase has not been made, but under an agreement obliging the consignee to pay the consignor for the goods when sold.
CONSIGNMENT CLAUSE A charterparty may stipulate the vessel will be consigned to owners' agents or charterers' agents for inward or outward business. If charterers are entitled to appoint agents at port of loading or discharge the owner must use the service of the charterers' agent and pay for those services.
CONSIGNOR A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper.
CONSOL This expession is an abbreviation found in sailing schedules and advertiements of liner services. It indicates date when cargo in smaller quantities will be grouped together, perhaps in one container or in more than one container but all the cargo is "consolidated" into one shipment. Usually the term is used to indicate to shippers the latest date when they should despatch small quantities ("less than container loads") to a carriers' of freight forwarders' facilities for stowing or "stuffing" into containers.
CONSOLIDATED SHIPMENT  An arrangement whereby various shippers pool their boxed goods on the same shipment, sharing the total weight charge for the shipment.
CONSOLIDATION  The Consolidation Endorsement may be added to an Open Cargo Policy at an agreed premium, to provide coverage on merchandise while in transit to, and while at, a common consolidation point for the purpose of preparing or consolidating the merchandise for export.
CONSOLIDATOR A person or firm  performing a consolidation service for others.  The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers.
CONSUL A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interest of her or his country and its nationals.
CONSULAR DECLARATION A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment.
CONSULAR DOCUMENTS  Bills of lading, certificates of origin or special invoice forms that are officially signed by the consul of the country of destination.
CONSULAR INVOICE  A detailed statement of goods shipped certified by the consul at the point of shipment.
CONSULAR VISA An official signature or seal affixed to certain documents by the consul of the country of destinations.
CONTAINER A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot.  Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices.  A container may be 20 feet, 40 feet, 48 feet, or 53 feet in length, 8”O” in width, and 8”6” or 9 “6” in height.
CONTAINER FLOW MANAGEMENT (CGM) This expression is related to container logistics. This approach to logistics involved the management of the fleet of containers themselves, not the fleet of container vessels and the space (or "slots") on board the vessels. The management also involves the movement of a container from one point to another without consideration of the actual mode of transport. The traditional carrier thus becomes a true "transport organiser". 
CONTAINER FREIGHT STATTION (CFS) Container Freight Station (CFS) is a custom-bonded warehousing facility, where the containers are stuffed and de-stuffed for export and import.
CONTAINER MANIFEST Document showing contents and loading sequence, point of origin, and point of destination for a container.  Vessels are requires by law to carry such a document for each container carried.
CONTAINER LEADING Container may be offered for carriage of goods by the carriers themselves or the carriers may not actually own the containers, rather leasing them from lessors. Other parties, such as shippers, may also wish to lease a container. Therefore the container can be owned by the ocean carriers, the lessors and also other transport operators, such as railway copanies, shippers themselves and large freight forwarders.
CONTAINER LOAD A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight.
CONTAINER POOL An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply pf containers. A common supply of containers available to the shippers as required.
CONTAINER SHIP  Ocean going ship designed to carry containers both internally and on deck. Some are self sustaining.
CONTAINER SIZES The sizes of containers depend mainly on their external dimensions, so that, for example, a container can be an ISO standard "Series 1 Freight container, Rating IAA" with external dimentions of 40 feet (length) x 8 feet (width) x 8feet 6 inches (height). The dimensions are used in either imperial or metric units. Although much o fhe world has become metricated, the "box" or container is still referred to by its imperial units, for example, a FEU is a forry-foot equivalent unit (of space occupied)
CONTAINER SLOT MANAGEMENT (CSM) The objective of the management in a liner operator's corparate plane is to achive the best utilisation factors of the container spaces or slots available on-board the carrier's own vessels. The revenue in increased by the volume of the goods carried. If slot space cannot be bound in the carrier's vessels, the carrier may use "vessel sharing arrangements" (VSA) with other carriers under which slots on-board vessels are reserved for fellow carriers. The VSA arrangement can also be called a "slot sharing" arrangement.
CONTAINER TERMINAL An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation.  Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed.
CONTAINER YARD (CY) A materials-handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/ or empty containers.  Commonly referred to as CY.
CONTAINERISATION SYSTEM Containers are not new. From earliest times human being have used objects designed to hold other things. Even nature did this before man thought of it. The egg is an obvious example. The use of containers in shipping is also not new. Jars for oil and wine were used thousands of years ago.
CONTAINERIZABLE CARGO Cargo that will be fit into a container and results in an economical shipment.
CONTAINERIZATION  Shipping systems based on large cargo-carrying containers ranging up to 48 feet long that can be easily interchanged between trucks, trains and ships without re-handling the contents.
CONTRABAND  During the time of war, materials carried aboard a vessel that could aid a belligerent in the process of the war, such as arms, weapons or munitions.
CONTRACT A legally binding agreement between two or more persons / organization to carry out reciprocal obligations or value.
CONTRACT CARRIER Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.
CONTRACT OF AFFREIGTMENT  In chartering this terms refers to a ship-owner (or charterer) who enters into a contract to carry a large quantity of cargo between named port or regions on mutually agreed terms and conditions over a period of time. The ship-owner may employ his own vessels or charter other vessels to meet his commitments. This ships used for the carriage are not named. As each shipment takes place a fresh voyage charter is entered into between the parties. This gives the ship-owner sufficient flexibility.
CONTRACTUAL LIABILITIES Liabilities incurred under contracts necessary for the normal operaiton of a ship, such as towage contracts, indemnities to port authorities, indemnities to stevedoring companies.
CONTROLEED ATMOSPHERE Sophisticated, computer-controlled systems that manage the  mixture of gases within a container throughout an  intermodal journey reducing decay
CONVENIENT SPEED The stipulation in a voyage charterparty that the vessel, after completion of loading, shall proceed with all possible speed of destinaiton, is usually changed into "whith all convenient speed" or "with all reasonable speed". The latter expressin eliminates any controversy, which may arise about the speed actually maintained on the veyage.
CONVENTIOAL DRY BUL CARGO Conventional dry bulk cargoes refer to cargoes refer to cargoes, which are handled like coal iron ore and food grains.
COREBIS  Contract Registration and Billing System, instituted by SA Port Operations from April 2002 - a single electronic billing system in place of paper.
CORRESPONDENT BANK A bank that, in its own country, bundles the business of a foreign bank.
COP In communications concerning chartering of tankers, the abbrevation for Cargo Oil Pumps is also "C.O.P."
COSMOS A Belgian electronic computer logistic system used at the SA container terminals.
COST & FREIGHT  (Cost and Freight) Seller owns goods until they are loaded on vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of freight. The buyer is responsible for insurance.
COST & EXPENSES Legal, technical or otherwise, incurred in investigating, defending, or pursuing a claim against which a member is covered by the club may also be payable by the club.
COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT  Seller owns goods until they are loaded on vessel; selling price includes cost of goods, insurance, and freight.
COUNTERVAILING DUTY An additional duty imposed to offset export grants, or subsidies or subsides paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the government of that country for the purpose of promoting export.
COVER NOTE A contract of marine insurance concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer, whether the policy is then issued or not. For the purpose of showing when thr proposal was accepted, reference may be made to the slip or cover note or other customary memorandum of the contract, although it may be unstamped.
CREEK PORT Creek port refers to a port facility that is set up along a creek formation, which generally extends the sea approach into the land mass.
CREW  The personnel engaged on board ship, excluding the master and officers and the passengers on passenger ships.
CREW AND PERSONAL CLAIMS Loss of life, personal injury claims, hospital, medical and funeral expense. Repatriation expenses and costs of sending substitutes abrad. Loss of crew's personal effects as a result of marine peril. Costs of deviation a ship to lank a sick or injured seaman. Loss of life or injury to stevedores (or other people on board or near the entered ship arising out of negligence of the shipowner or his servants), as well as crew or other person in another ship arising out of collision.
CREW LIST  List prepared by the master of a ship showing the full names, nationality, passport or discharge book number, rank and age of every officer and crew member engaged on board that ship and is one of the essential ship's documents presented to the customs and immigration authorities on arrival at a new port.
CROSS TRADE  To trade a ship wherever suitable cargoes are available, rather then carrying cargoes to and from the country where the ship is registered.
CSLA Container Shipping Lines Association (CSLA) is an association of container shipping lines in India and takes up issues of common to container lines operating in Indian ports.
CUBIC CAPACITY  The most important commercial measurement when the intrinsic weight of the cargo is so low that the ship becomes full without being loaded to the cargo line. Is expressed in cubic metres or cubic feet. 
CURRENT ADJUSTMENT FACTOR  This takes account of the rate of exchange variations. Owners are required to pay costs in local currency in the country of loading and discharging. It is a percentage of the base rate.
CUSTOMARY DESPATH or CUSTOMARY QUICK DESPATCH  The charter is required to discharge and/or load as quickly as possible (as fast as can) depending on the custom of the port. There is no fixed time allowed to the charterer. Hence the term is not favourable to the ship-owner as the lay time is indefinite and uncertain.
CUSTOME OF THE PORT  This term relates to customs and practices which have been gradually established in the course of time in a particular port. If a C/P provides loading and discharging according to the custom of the port (or with customary dispatch or as fast as can) the lay time becomes indefinite, a situation unfavourable to ship-owners as they will find it difficult to put a claim for demurrage or damages for detention.
CUSTOMHOUSE A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc, on foreign shipments.
CUSTOMHOUSE BROKER A person or firms, licensed by the treasury department of their country when requires, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer).
CUSTOMS Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and export revenues.
CUSTOMS BONDED WAREHOUS A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty-free merchandise.
A Customs Brokerage clears goods through customs barriers for business imports and exports. This involves the preparation of documents and/or electronic submissions, the calculation of taxes, duties and excises (and usually the payment) on behalf of the business, and facilitating communication between the importer/exporter and governmental authorities
CUSTOMS ENTRY All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods.  The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise.  The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign goods are properly declared.
CUSTOMS BROKER  Licensed by U.S. Customs to clear shipments for clients, also can forward goods “In Bond” to your port.
CUT-OFF-TIME The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for  loading to a scheduled train or ship.
CY ( Container Yard) The term CY means the location designated by Carrier in the port terminal area for receiving, assembling, holding, storing and delivering containers, and where containers may be picked up by shippers or re-delivered by consignees. No container yard (CY) shall be a shipper's, consignee's, NVOCC's, or a forwarder's place of business, unless otherwise provided.
CY/CFS (House to Pier) The term CY/CFS means containers packed by shipper of carrier's premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier's CY, all at shipper's risk and expense and unpacked by Carrier at the destination port CFS.
CY/CY (House to House) The term CY/CY means containers packed by shipper off Carrier's premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier's CY and accepted by consignee a t Carrier's CY and unpacked by consignee off Carrier's premises, all at the risk and expense of cargo.
D/A-DOCUMENTS AGAINST ACCEPTANCE  Instructions from a shipper to his bank that the documents attached to a time draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee against his acceptance of the draft.
D1/2D (DESPATCH HALF DEMURRAGE) (DHD) The rate of payment of despatch by the shipowner to the charterer for releasing the ship earlier than the period of agreed laytime ("Despatch") is set in the charteerparty to be half the rate of compensation at which the charterer pays the shipowner if the agreed laytime is exceeded ("demurrage"). It is traditional for despatch payment to be at half the rate demurrage payments.
D/P-DOCUMENTS AGAINST PAYMENT  Instructions a shipper gives to his bank that the documents attached to a draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee only against his payment of the draft.
DAILY OPERATING COSTS This expression covers the daily running costs of a vessel which can be expressed in a fixed amount per a day and which are not conditional upon the quality of cargo, service speed.
DAILY RUNNING COST  Cost per day of operating a ship.
DAMAGES FOR DETENTION  Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If  the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.
DATE ON CHARTER PARTY  The actual date on which the fixture negotiations are finally concluded, after all subjects have been lifted.
DAVITS  Two radial cranes on a ship which hold the lifeboats, which are used to lower and lift lifeboats.
DAY  Means a continuous period of 24 hours which, unless the context otherwise requires, runs from midnight to midnight.
DAYS ALL PURPOSES  Total time for both loading and discharging. (See reversible lay time).
DAYS ON DEMURRAGE These are days by which the agreed number of laydays for loading or duscharge are exceeded. In some charterers a limited fixed number of days on demurrage is agreed, in addition to the laytime allowed. Shipwoners are entitled to damages for detention if, after demurrage days have expired, furthur delay is experienced.
DEAD FREIGHT  Where a charterer or shipper fails to fulfill his contract to load the cargo or the full cargo, he commits a breach of the contract for which he is liable to pay damages. These damages are known as dead freight. In other words, payment for space booked on a vessel but not used.
DEADWEIGHT (DWT)  A common measure of ship carrying capacity, equalling the number of tonnes of cargo, stores and bunkers that the ship can transport. It is the difference between the number of tonnes of water a vessel displaces 'light' and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the 'deep load line'. A ship's cargo capacity is less than its total deadweight tonnage. The difference in weight between a vessel when it is fully loaded and when it is empty (in general transportation terms, the net) measured by the water it displaces. This is the most common, and useful, measurement for shipping as it measures cargo capacity and is usually used when referring to liquid and dry bulk ships. 
DEADWEIGHT CARGO CAPACITY  Weight of the cargo only which a ship can carry when immersed to her summer loadline. It is the deadweight all told less weight of bunkers, fresh water, constants, etc.
DEADWEIGHT CHARTERERS Bulk carriers are sometimes fixed on the basis of a guaranteed deadweight capaciry of cargo at a certain lumpsum freight. This method of chartering is followed in trades where charterers wish to have freedom of action as to the type of grain they intend to ship, either havy grain, light grain or a combinaiton of both kinds.
DEADWEIGHT TONNAGE  Signifies the carrying capacity of a vessel and includes bunkers, fresh water, cargo and/or passengers and constants. The difference between the displacement of a vessel on her light draft and her loaded draft represents the deadweight capacity in tons (or tones). Also called deadweight all told.
DEAT  Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
DECONSOLIDATION POINT Place where loose or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.
DECK CARGO Transports heavy or oversize cargoes mounted to its top deck instead of inside a hold. Machinery, appliances, project cargoes and even recreational vehicles move on deck barges.
DECK CARGO  Cargo carried outside rather than within the enclosed cargo spaces of a vessel.
DECKHAND Seaman who works on the deck of a ship and remains in the wheelhouse attending to the orders of the duty officers during navigation and manoeuvring.
DECK LINE 12”  (or 300mm) line painted amidships on both sides and parallel to the loadlines. The line is located at the point where the upper most continuous deck, known as the freeboard deck, meets the side of the ship.
DECK LOG  Also called Captain's Log. A full nautical record of a ship's voyage, written up at the end of each watch by the deck officer on watch. The principal entries are: courses steered; distance run; compass variations, sea and weather conditions; ship's position, principal headlands passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual position, principal headlands passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual happenings such as fire, collision, and the like. 
DECK OFFICER  As distinguished from engineer officer, refers to all officers who assist the master in navigating the vessel when at sea, and supervise the handling of cargo when in port.
DECK HOUSE  Small superstructure on the top deck of a vessel, which contains the helm and other navigational instruments.
DEEP SEA TRADES  The traffic routes of both cargo and passenger vessels which are regularly engaged on the high seas or on long voyages.
DEEP STOWAGE  Any bulk, bagged or other type of cargo stowed in single hold ships.
DEFERRED REBATE The return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier or a conference shipper in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier or conference over a specified period of time (usually six months). Payment of the rate is deferred for a further similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate that will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier of conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier or conference. Although the deferred rebate system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce, it generally is accepted in the ocean trade between other countries.
DEFICIT WEIGHT The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.
DEFINITE LAYTIME  One of the three forms of lay time (the other two being “calculable” and “indefinite”). The charter party specifies the days/hours allowed for loading and/or discharging.
DELAY  Even under All Risk coverage, damage due to delay is not recoverable. Most underwriters have inserted a “Delay Cause” in the Open Cargo Policy, which states specifically that damage caused by delay is not recoverable even if the delay was due to a peril insured against.
DELIVERY & RE-DELIVERY  A time charter commences with the delivery of the vessel to the charterer and comes to an end with the re-delivery of the vessel to the owner. The delivery or re-delivery can occur at a port or a place agreed upon, e.g., passing Skaw (northern tip of Denmark, at the entrance of the Baltic Sea); passing Cape Passero (south-east coast of Italy); passing Key West (Florida), or any other position.
DEMURRAGE  Money (compensation) payable to the ship-owner by a charterer for delay for which the owner is not responsible in loading and/or discharging after the lay time stipulated in the C/P has expired.
DENSITY The weight of cargo per cubic foot or other unit.
DEPTH The depth is the vertical distance measured from the keel to the deck. The extreme depth is the depth measured at the ship's side form the upermost continuous deck to the lower point of the keel. The moulded depth is measured from the top of the lower plate (the "base line" ) to the underside (that is, the heel) of the deck beam at the ship's side amidships.
DERRICK A type of crane found on merchant ships, the name is believed to have been the name of a London hangman named Derrick of the 17th century.
DESPATCH DAYS Days saved in the loading or discharges of the vessel within the time allowed under the charterparty may be called "despatch days".
DESPATCH / DESPATCH MONEY  The money (bonus) payable by the ship-owner to the charterer if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the expiry of lay time stipulated in the C/P. usually half the demurrage rate.
DESPATCH - ALL TIME SAVED (ATS) If the charterparty does not specify which description of time attracts despatch, it is presumed that despatch will be payable for all time saved. In this situation, the time saved to the vessel will be from the completion of loading and/or discharging until the expiry of the allowed laytime and will include periods which would normally be exceptions to laytime. This differs from despatch payable for "all working time saved".
DESPATCH - ALL WORKING  TIME SAVED (WTS) This description of the time means the time saved to the owner from the completion of the loading and/or discharging until the expiry of the allowed laytime and excluding periods which are exceptions to laytime.
DETENTION A penalty charge against shippers or consigners for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time.  Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment.
DETENTION & DEMAGES FOR DETENTION  If demurrage has not been agreed in the charter party, the ship-owner can claim compensation as damages for detention. A case where a ship-owner can claim damages for detention is when a vessel is chartered to load at a berth where the vessel must be always afloat. However the charterer directs the vessel to a berth where the vessel is not always afloat. Since it has been agreed in the C/P that NOR can be tendered and lay time to commence whether the vessel is in berth or not (wibon), the master refuses to comply with the berthing orders. The ship-owner in this case may not be able to put a claim for demurrage. However, he may be entitled to “damages for detention”.
DEVIATION    Under the Marine Insurance Act, if a ship, without lawful excuse, deviates from the voyage contempleted by the policy, the insure is discharged from liability from the time of deviation, and it is immaterial that the ship may have regained her route before any loss occurs.
DEVIATION CLAUSE  Deviation is an intentional departure from the set or agreed course of the voyage. The ship is not permitted to leave this route for any purpose without justification. To protect themselves the ship-owners enter a clause in the charter party called the “deviation clause” which allows them to deviate to save or attempt to save life and/or property at sea and to give the owners the right to deviate for bunkering purpose (by inserting another clause called the “P & I Bunkering Clause”).
DIFFERENTIAL An amount added or deducted from base rare to make to or from some other point or via another route.
DIRTY  This expression is regularlty used in tanker freight market reports and refers to fixtures for "dirty" oils, eg. Fuel, lubricating oil and crude oil, in contrast whith "clean" oil, e.g., gasoline, diesel oil, etc.
DISABLED SHIP  When a ship is unable to sail efficiently or in a seaworthy state as a result of engine trouble, lack of officers or crew, damage to the hull or ship's gear.
DISBURSEMENTS  Sums paid out by the ship’s agent on behalf of a ship-owner and recovered subsequently.
DISCREPANCY LETTER OF CREDIT When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it it’s referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L /C’s which have discrepancies.  They will refer the situation back to the buyer and / or seller and await further instructions.
DISPATCH This may be used to mean "despatch" or compensation, but this can be confusing. It may be better used to describe the "speeding up of an activity". For example, the shipowner is obliged to ensure that the vessel proceeds to the next port with "reasonable dispatch".
DISPLACEMENT The  weight, in tons of 2,240 ponds, of the vessel and its contents.  Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water.
DISPLACEMENT LIGHT  Weight of the vessel without bunkers, fresh water, cargo and/or passengers and constants.
DISPLACEMENT LOADED  Weight of the vessel plus bunkers, fresh water, cargo and/or passengers and constants.
DISPONENT OWNER  A charterer who has control of the vessel (e.g. under a bareboat or time charter) is referred to as a “disponent owner”. During the duration of the charter, he acts as if he were the real owner.
DISTANCE FREIGHT  The expression is used in connection with discharge of cargo at a port other than the original port of destination. For instance, if the vessel runs the risk of being frozen in, the master may deem it advisable to deliver the cargo at the nearest safe port. If the extra distance is worthwhile he can claim distance freight.
DISTRESS FREIGHT  When a chartered vessel is being loaded at the berth and charterers find it difficult to secure completion of cargo at normal rates, they may book cargo at very low rates (called distress rates) in order to fill up the remaining space rather than allow the vessel to be dispatched with empty space.
DISTRIBUTION The activities associated with moving materials from source to destination.  Can be associated with movement from a manufacturer or distributor to customers, retailers or other secondary warehousing/distribution points.
DISTRIBUTION WAREHOUSE  A warehouse that stores finished goods and from which customer orders are assembled.
DIVERSION A change made either in the route of a shipment in transit (see Reconsignment ) or of the entire ship.
DIVISION Carrier’s practice of dividing revenue received from rates where hauls are involved.  This is usually according to agreed formulae
DOCK For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up,  For land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.
DOCK LABOUR BOARD A statutory authority under the Dock Labour Board Act, whose mandate is to take care of the interests of dock labour and allocates them work as  required by port authority.
DOCK RECEIPT  Receipt issued by an ocean carrier or its agent for merchandise delivered at its dock or warehouse awaiting shipment.
DOCKAGE Refers to the charge assessed against the vessel for berthing at the facility or for morning to a vessel so berthed.
DOCUMENTARY CREDIT  A commercial letter of credit providing for payment by a bank to the name beneficiary, usually the seller of merchandise, against delivery of documents specified in the credit.
DOCUMENTS AGAINST ACCEPTANCE (D / A) Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft.
DOCUMENTS  Papers customarily attached to foreign drafts, consisting of ocean bills of lading, marine insurance certificates, and commercial invoices, and where required, including certificates of origin and consular invoices.
DOLLY A  set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is disconnected.
DOOR-TO-DOOR Through transportation of a container and its contents from the consignor to consignee.  Also known as House to House Not necessarily a through rate.
DOT  Department of Trade and Industry.
DOUBLE BOTTOM  General term for all watertight spaces contained between the outside bottom plating, the tank top and the margin plate. The double bottoms are sub-divided into a number of separate tanks which may contain boiler feed water, drinking water, fuel oil, ballast, etc. Now becoming common on all tankers.
DOUBLE-STACK  The movement of containers on specialized articulated rail cars that enable the vertical stacking of the containers on each platform of the car
DOWN TO HER MARKS  When a vessel is immersed to the appropriate loadline and therefore cannot load any further cargo.
DRAFT  Buyer’s payment for goods.
DRAFT OR DRAUGHT  Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of  the water in which the ship is lying.
DRAFT SURVEY  Survey undertaken to determine the quantities of cargo on board a ship.
DRAGGING Method of fishing in which a net is pulled behind the boat. 
DRAWBACK A partial refund of an import fee.  Refund usually results because goods are re-exported from the country that collected the fee.
DRAWEE The individual or firm that issues a draft and this stands to receive payment.
DRAYAGE  Transport by truck for short distances; e.g. from wharf to warehouse..
DREDGE A waterborne machine that removes unwanted silt accumulations from the bottom of a waterway. (verb) The process of removing sediment from harbor or river bottoms for safety purposes and to allow for deeper vessels.
DRILL SHIP  Regular production ship usually on offshore oil wells, positioned by anchors or dynamic positioning. Possesses its own propulsion machinery. 
DROPPING LAST OUTWARD SEA PILOT  Some ports require the service of more than one pilot to be used, one from the berth to the beginning of the channel and another called the sea-pilot for navigation within the channel to the river and canal outside the port limits. In this case the off-hire (or on-hire) survey will be carried out only when the sea-pilot (who navigates the vessel outside the port limits) disembarks from the ship.
DROPPING OUTWARD PILOT  A point of delivery on to and re-delivery off a time charter. The point where an “on-hire” or “off-hire” survey takes place is that place where the pilot who assists the ship in navigation to the pilot station disembarks from the ship. A point in owner’s favour as expenses into and out of a port (e.g., hire of a tug) will be for charterer’s account.
DRY-BULK CONTAINER A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk.  Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform.
DRY CARGO Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control.
DRY CARGO SHIP  Vessel that carries all merchandise, excluding liquid in bulk.
DRY CONTAINER A General Purpose Container ,A closed container for the carriage of all types of general cargo.
DRY DOCK  An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with watertight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry. Sometimes has two or more compartments separated by watertight doors. Dry docks are also referred to as Graving Docks.
DRY DOCKING Dry docking of a ship refers to docking of a ship of repairs and other related maintenance work at a facility specially created for the purpose.
DUAL RATE CONTRACT This is one from of a "layalty contract" by which a shipper obtains an immediate lower freight rate by agreeing to use a particular carrier's or conference's services.
DUMPING Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country.
DUNNAGE  Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the tines of a fork lift truck may be inserted.
DUTIABLE VALUE The amount on which an Ad Valorem or customs duty is calculated.
DUTY  (a) ad valorem duty means an assessed amount at a certain percentage rate on the monetary value of an import. (b) Specific duty: an assessment on the weight or quantity of an article without preference to its monetary value or market price. (c) Drawback: a recovery in whole or in part of duty paid on imported merchandise at the time of exportation, in the same or different form.
DWAT (DEADWEIGHT ALL-TOLD) This is the total deadweight capacity of the ship comprising cargo, fuel, ballast water, fresh water, crew and their personal effects, stores and equipment, spare parts for the ship and andy other item non being part of the ship's original construction.
DWCC (DEADWEIGHT CARGO CAPACITY) This is the part of the avilable deadweight for carriage of cargo. Quantities of fuel, water and srores, etc. are not included.
DWT Dead Weight Tonnes is a measure of the cargo carrying capacity of a ship and refers to the total weight of the cargo that a ship can carry when loaded down to its marks, including the weight of the fuel, stores , water ballast, fresh water, crew passengers and other baggage.
ECONOMIC SPEED  Speed of a ship which is lower than its normal speed. It provides a reduction in fuel cost as less fuel is consumed.
EDGE PROTECTOR An angle piece fitted over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and other packages to prevent the pressure from metal bands or other types from cutting into the package.
ELEVATGING A charge for services performed in connection with floating elevators.  Charges assessed for the handling of grain through grain elevators.
EMBARGO Order to restrict the hauling of freight.
EMINENT DOMAIN The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation.
EMPITIES Empties refer to containers that are located along the inland estimates that ate formed inside the coastal line and which connect many interior places with the sea.
ENDORSEMENT A  leg signature usually placed on the reverse of a draft, signifies transfer of rights from the holder to another party.
ENTRY Custom documents required to clear an import shipment for entry into the  general commerce of a country.
ETHYLENE A gas produced by many fruits and vegetables that accelerates the ripening and aging processes.
EVAPORATOR  Heat-exchanging device which absorbs waste heat from a cargo and transfers the heat to a circulating refrigerant. Evaporators convert low-temperature, low-pressure refrigerant into high-temperature, low-pressure refrigerant. Evaporator fans improve heat transfer by circulating air within the container over the evaporator coils and fins.
EVEN IF USED  Time spent in carrying out loading and/or discharging in excepted periods (e.g., Shex =Sundays and holidays excepted) is not to count as lay time, even if used. This qualification of lay time is favourable to the charterer. “Unless used” has the opposite effect and favours the ship-owner.
EVEN KEEL  When the draft of a ship fore and aft are the same.
EX (POINT OF ORIGIN)  From the point where the shipment begins movement, e.g., “Ex Factory” “Ex Mine” or “Ex Warehouse.” See “Terms of Sale.”
EX-DOCK  (From dock.) Seller owns goods until they are unloaded on dock at port of discharge; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of unloading from vessel.
EX-FACTORY  Seller owns goods until they are picked up at his factory; selling price is the cost of the goods.
EXCEPTED  Refers to lay time. Means that the specified days do not count as lay time even if loading or discharging is done on them, e.g., Sundays and holidays excepted. Note that if lay time has expired then the exceptions do not apply.
EXCEPTION Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded abroad a vessel.  They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo.  Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading.
EXCEPTION CLAUSES  Clauses in a C/P or B/L which relieve the carriers of responsibility of certain perils, accidents or neglect. (See Hague Rules and COGSA).
EXCEPTIONS TO LAYTIME  The happening of events agreed upon in the C/P which interrupt counting of lay time. These give protection to the charterer. For e.g., a clause dealing with stoppage of work due to strike would be a protective clause.
EXPIRY DATE Issued in connection with documents such as letters of credit, tariffs, etc to advise that stated provisions will expire at a certain time.
EXPORT Shipment of goods to a foreign country.
EXPORT LICENSE A government document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
EXPRESS B/L A special facility granted by carrier under guarantees from shipper/consignee to release cargo to named consignee without presenting original B/L. 
EXPRESS CLAUSE  In case what has actually been agreed is not very clear, then an express clause is inserted in addition to the printed form drawing attention to the terms specifically agreed upon.
EXTREME BREADTH This is the maximum breadth of the vessel ot the outside of the plating and ship's structure.
EXW Ex works. Same as the former "Ex Works."FAK  Freight All Kinds - uniform airline charging scale applying to a number of commodities; as opposed to SCR (Specific Commodity Rate) applying to one commodity only
EX WORK An INCOTERMS term of sale applicable to all modes of transport.
F.O.B./F.A.S. ENDORSEMENT  If a merchant sells on F.O.B., F.A.S., C&F or similar terms, it is the buyer’s responsibility to place the insurance.
FAIR WEATHER PORT Fair weather ports are those ports that are not operational throughout the year and are generally closed during the monsoon months, when seas are very rough.
FAKE BILLS OF LADING Some fraudsters are capable of forging bulls of lading using high quality colour photocopiers that can reproduce even the printed logo of the carrier. These fake bulls of lading are usuallysued in persuading buyers or bank to pay for non-existent cargo. This practice can be prevented if the innocent parties check the name and movement of the vessel named on the bill of lading. In 1989, Security Investigation Service of London reported a number of cases of this type of fraud. For example, "cargoes" of Nigerian oil described in bills of lading exceeded the tonnage of vessels supposed to be carrying the oil.
FAS (FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP) Seller is responsible for inland freight costs until goods are located alongside the vessel/aircraft for loading. Buyer is responsible for loading costs, ocean /air freight and marine/air insurance.
FAST AS CAN  The term appears in a C/P when lay time is not fixed. It means that the lay time is calculated by reference to the maximum rate at which the ship in full working order is capable of loading or discharging the cargo as fast as she can. At times this term is combined with the custom of the port or customary quick dispatch.
FATHOM unit of water depth equivalent to 6 feet. 
FCL (FULL CONTAINER LOAD) This expression refers to a consignment form a shipper which will occupy the entire container. The feight rates are generally lowe for FCL shipments compared to LCL or "Less than container load" (i.e., break bulk cargo) that has to be loaded into a container.
FEEDER  A grain container or reservoir constructed around the hatchway between two decks of a ship which when filled with grain automatically feeds or fills in the vacant areas in the lower holds. 
FEEDER SERVICE Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for a long-haul ocean voyage. 
FEEDER SHIP  Ships that handle transhipped cargo from one port to another.
FEEDER VESSEL  A short-sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central hub port and smaller "spoke" ports
FENDER PILES  The wooden or plastic pilings on the outer edge of the wharf function like the fenders on a car. They are there to absorb the shock of a ship as it docks at the wharf and to protect the structural pilings that actually support the wharf. Fender piles are also called sacrifice piles since they are designed to be discarded after they are broken.
FEU Forty-foot equivalent unit. This is a unit to measure the space available for containers. One standard size related to the external length of the box being forty feer or 12.2m. The carriers in the United States emphasise the FEU whereas in other parts of the word the TEU, "twenty-foot equivalent unit" is more accepted.
FILO (FREE IN LINER OUT) If a charterparty states that the cargo will be loaded free of expense to the shipowner of other carrier but that he will for the discharging, the discharging is on liner terms (or "gross terms"), hence the use of this abbreviation. (Note that for financial accounting, the abbreviation can alos refer ot the manner in which stock is valued, "first in, last out", This has no relevance to chartering.)
FINAL SAILING A ship has finally departed from the loading port as soon as it has passed the limits of the poet being construed in the commercial sense, being rady in every respect to proceed on the contemplated voyage with no intention of returning. Consequently limits other than commercial limits, such as legal limits (established by port authorities) and fiscal limits, are not significant to the position of the ship for any particular reason, for example, for the payment of freight. In some charterparties freight by become due a fixed period of time after "fianl sailing".
FINES Imposed on the owner for breach by his servents of regulations such as immigration, customs, smuggling by crew members, pollution. Fines for over loading are specifically excluded.
FIREMAN  An unlicensed member of the engine, room staff whose duties consist in standing watch in the boiler room and insuring the oil burning equipment is working properly.
FIXTURE Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship - an agreement
FREEDER VESSEL A short-sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports
FIELD WARE HOUSE  A warehouse that stores goods on the goods' owner's property while the goods are under a bona fide public warehouse manager's custody. The owner uses the public warehouse receipts as collateral for a loan. 
FIRM OFFER  Used by the owner’s shipbroker in negotiations to indicate that the vessel is being offered to only one possible charterer at a time. Conversely, the term could also be used by the charterer’s shipbroker inviting owner’s shipbroker to submit a firm offer for a particular order. It is a normal practice to include certain main terms in a firm offer.
FIRM FOR REPLY OR FIRM FOR IMMEDIATE RPLY During chartering negotiations, telexes and similar messages are transmitted by one party's brokers to brokers for the other party using introductory terminology such as these terms. In chartering practice, such terminology has become common and acceptable to most, if not all, shipping professionals.
FIRM ORDER This term can be used after a charterer (or charterer's agent) has entered the marker with an order indicating that requires a ship usually for a cargo (voyage charter) or for a period. The charterer's order is usually placed in the charter market when he is investigating the pssibilities for transport of the goods over which he has control. When he is prepared to commence firm negotiations for transport, his order may commence with the words.
FIRST CLASS CHARTERER  When the name of the charterer is not revealed by his broker the charterer is referred to as a first class charterer. However, it is risky to negotiate with such a charterer as his record of payments cannot be cross-checked with BIMCO.
FIRST OPEN WATER  The first date when a port is free from ice conditions to allow ships to enter, load/discharge and leave safely, at the start of a new season. The term is commonly used in the St Lawrence Seaway.
FIRST REFUSAL In negotiating for the fixture of a vessel a shipowner's shipbrokers may attempt to abtain a FIRM OFFER form the charterer of the charterer's agents within a stated time limit. The shipowner may alos make a FIRM OFFER to the charterer, also valid within a time limit. In the first case, teh shipowner is considered to have first refusal of the cargo being offered.
FIXED Costs that do not vary with the level of activity.  Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried.  Terminal leases, rent and property taxes are fixed costs.
FIXING LETTER As soon as the negotiations about the chartering of a vessel have resulted in the "fixture" of a ship, a "fixing letter" may be drawn up containing a summary of the main terms and conditions of the charterparty. This can also be communicated electronically (telexor facsmile) by means of a "re-cap" message. ("Re-cap" is an abbreviation of "regapitulaiton" which means a summary or a "going over" of the main points or headings of a transaction.) A fixing letter or re-cap message is confirmation of a charter fixture and is usually accepted by both shipowners and charterers before the signing of the actual charterparty document.
FIXTURE  Conclusion of a shipbroker’s negotiations to charter (fix) a ship.
FIXING  Chartering a Vessel
FLAGS OF CONVENIENCE (FOC)  The registration of ships in a country that offer favourable tax structures and regulations; also the flag representing the nation under whose jurisdiction a ship is registered. Ships are always registered under the laws of one nation but are not always required to establish their home location in that country. FOC states often offer low tax rates and their requirements concerning manning or maintenance are not stringent. The term always denotes registration of vessels in foreign nations. 
FLEETING  The area at which barges, towboats and tugs are berthed until needed. The operation of building or dismantling barge tows
FLOATING POLICY Section 29 (1) of the Marine Insurance Act 1906 states: "A floating policy is a policy which describes the insurance in general terms and leaves the name of the ship or ships and other particulars to be defined by subwequent declaration."
FLOTSAM  any "stuff" floating - trees, driftwood, wreckage, etc
FLATPACKING  Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.
FOB (free on board) Seller is responsible for inland freight and all other costs until the cargo has been loaded on the vessel/aircraft. Buyer is responsible for ocean/air freight and marine/air insurance.
FOLDED      An article folded in such a manner as to reduce its bulk 33 1/3% from its normal shipping cubage when not folded.
FORCE MAJEURE  The title of a standard clause in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.
FORCE MAJEURE  Circumstances beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract. E.g., Act of God. This can relieve that party from performing the contract.
FORECASTLE  The raised part of the forward end of a ship's hull, taking its name from the days of sailing ships where the forecastle was effectively a 'castle' on the ship's prow used for defending the ship. On some ships this area may be used for crew accommodation or quarters but on most new ships the space is used for the storage of paints, tackle, deck and engine stores, tarpaulins, etc.
FORE AND AFT The direction on a vessel parallel to the center line.
FORK LIFT A machine used  to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids.
FOREIGN TRADE ZONE A free port in a country divorced from customs authority but under government control.  Merchandise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty.
FORWARD  toward the bow or stem
FORWARD  Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment; preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehouse, pier delivery and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.
FOUL BILL OF LADING A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received Compare Clean Bill of Lading.
FOUR-WAY PALLET A  pallet designed so that the forks of a lift truck can be inserted from all four sides.
FREE (OF) TURN  Time lost (if any) by a vessel for waiting its turn to berth to count as lay time against the charterer. Opposite of “in regular turn”.
FREE ALONGSIDE  Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers  costs and risks of loading.
FREE ALONGSIDE STEAMER  Seller owns goods until they are delivered alongside vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of transportation to dock.
FREE ASTRAY An astray shipment (a lost shipment that is found) sent to its proper destination without additional charge.
FREE DESPATCH  If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned.
FREE DISCHARGE  The charterer contracts to discharge the vessel, free of expense to the ship-owner.
FREE FROM INCUMBRANCES Sale contract of ships usually contain the proviso "free from incumbrances" whichimplies that the vessel is free from any mortgage or other debt.
FREE IN & OUT  Distance measured amidships from the waterline to the main deck.
FREE IN & OUT AND SPOUT TRIMMED  Charterer bears the expenses of the cargo to be loaded, spout trimmed and discharged, free of expense to the ship owner (e.g., bulk wheat).
FREE IN & OUT AND STOWED  Charterer bears the expenses of loading, stowing and discharging, free of expense to the ship-owner (e.g., bagged rice).
FREE IN & OUT AND TRIMMED  Same as FIO plus that the cargo has also to be trimmed at the charterer’s expense, e.g., bulk cargo.
FREE IN & OUT STOWED AND TRIMMED  Charterer bears the expenses of the cargo to be loaded, stowed, trimmed and discharged free or expense to the ship-owner (e.g., scrap iron).
FREE IN LINER OUT  Charterer pays expenses at load port(s), while the ship owner pays the expenses at the discharge port(s)
FREE ON BOARD TRUCK  Seller owns goods until they are loaded on truck at his factory; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of loading on truck.
FREE ON BOARD VESSEL  Seller owns goods until they are loaded on vessel; selling price includes all costs so far plus cost of loading on vessel.
FREE OF CAPTURE & SEIZURE  Free of Capture & Seizure – Clause excluding war risks from the Marine Policy; war risks can be covered by issuing a separate War Policy with an additional premium being charged.
FREE ON BOARD  Seller sees the goods  over the ship's   rail on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer
FREE ON BOARD WAREHOUSE  (Free on board warehouse.) Seller owns goods until they are delivered to buyer’s warehouse at final destination; selling price includes all costs so far plus transportation to final warehouse.
FREE OUT  Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes sea freight only.
FREE PORT A restricted area at a seaport for the handling of duty-exempted import goods.  Also called a Foreign Trade Zone.
FREE PRATIQUE  This expression means that the vessel has a clean bill of health. (The health authorities board the vessel in order to ascertain the correctness of the information given by the master or the agent).
FREE TIME That amount of time that a carrier’s equipment may be  used without incurring additional charges.
FREE TO CARRIER  A modern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarder premises, depot or terminal but not actually put on board vessel.
FREE TRADE ZONE  A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Customs Authority. Also called FOREIGN TRADE ZONE
FREEBOARD  Distance measured amidships from the waterline to the main deck.
FREEDER SERVICE Cargo to / form regional ports are transferred to / from a central hub port for a long-haul ocean voyage.
FREIGHT  The money charged by the carrier for transporting goods.
Freight All Kind. System whereby freight is charged per container, irrespective of nature of goods, and not according to a Tariff. 
FREIGHT AT DESTINATION  Freight payable at destination upon delivery of goods. Also referred to as “freight collect”.
FREIGHT FORWARDES A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper.  A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation.
FREIGHT RATE  The charge made for the transportation of freight.
FREIGHT TON  Unit of cargo on which freight rate is based, either one tonne or one cubic meter.
FREIGHT TONNE  The greater weight or measurement of goods where 1 tonne is equal to 1,000kg or 1 cubic metre.
FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE  Loadline regulations permit extra draft when a vessel loads in fresh water, the reason being that the vessel’s draft becomes less when she reaches open sea (salt water) where the density of water is greater.
FRESH WATER ARRIVAL DRAFT  Fresh water draft of a ship on arrival at a port.
FRIDASYS & HOLIDAYS EXCEPTED or FRIDAYS & HOLIDAYS INCLUDED  Fhex applies to Muslim countries where Friday is observed as a holiday; Fhinc applies to non-Muslim countries where Friday is not observed as a holiday.
FRUSTRATION  There is a question of frustration when through circumstances entirely beyond control of parties commercial object of maritime adventure is entirely frustrated. The expression “frustration of the adventure” in C/Ps relates to a delay of such duration—without the actual fault of either party—as to frustrate the charter.
FULL & COMPLETE CARGO  Cargo required to fill a ship to capacity either by weight or cubic measurement.
FULLY CELLULAR CONTRACT This is a vessel designed to carry a full load of containers in fixed cell guides.
FULLY DECLARED This is a floating policy in which the total of the amounts reaches the agreed limit. The floating policy comes to an end it is fully declared.
FUMIGATION  Treatment with a pesticide active ingredient that is a gas under treatment conditions.
GANG  Group of stevedores usually 4 to 5 members with supervisor assigned to a hold or portion of the vessel being loaded or unloaded.
GANGWAY A narrow portable platform used as a passage, by persons entering or leaving a vessel moored alongside a pier or quay.
GANGWAY CHARGES Gangway charges refer to the charges levied by the port authorities for use  of roads and passages in the port area for carrying cargo from the berth side to the storage area.
GANTRY CRANE  Track-mounted, shoreside crane utilized in the loading and unloading of breakbulk cargo, containers and heavy lift cargo.
GAS TANKER  Specially designed for the transport of condensed (liquefied) gases. The most important gases are: ammonia, ethylene, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which consists mainly of methane, and is cooled to a temperature of minus 163 degrees Celsius, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) such as butane and propane. 
GATEWAY Industry-related: A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines.
GATT An international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practice for fair trading in international commerce.
GENERAL - MERCHANDISE WAREHOUSE  A warehouse used to store goods that are readily handled, are packaged, and do not require a controlled environment
GENERAL AVERAGE (G.A.)  Ancient principle of equity in which all parties in a sea adventure (ship, cargo, and freight) proportionately share losses resulting from a voluntary and successful sacrifice of part of the ship or cargo to save the whole adventure from an impending peril, or extraordinary expenses necessarily incurred for the joint benefit of ship and cargo.
GENERAL AVERAGE SECURITY  Documents the cargo owner presents to the General Average Adjuster to replace the vessel owner's maritime lien on cargo for its share of General Average and to obtain release of the goods by the Steamship Company. G.A. Security consists of a G.A. Bond and either a cash deposit or an Underwriter's Guarantee.
GENERAL CARGO General cargo refers to aggregate of container cargo, break bulk and other cargo and excludes liquid and bulk cargoes.
GOLDEN QUADRILATERAL Golden Quadrilateral refers to national highways projects that seeks to directly link up all the four major metro cities in the country and create a North South and East West corridor.
GOODS  Cargo shipped by sea or air.
GOOSENECK The front rails of the chassis that rise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of container leading to the connection to tractor.
GRAB / GRAB DAMAGE  Grab is a unit of cargo handling, consisting or two quarter circle metal parts which can be brought together to make a close fit, operated by a crane or winch power. Grab damage is damage to ship caused by use of the mechanical grabs.
GRAIN CAPACITY  The capacity in cubic feet of the cargo hold in a ship measured to inside of the shell plating. (If measured to the inside of the frames or cargo battens it is called bale capacity is used for bulk cargoes e.g. grains, and bale capacity is used for general cargo, e.g., pallets.
GRAIN ELEVATOR  Facility at which bulk grain is unloaded, weighed, cleaned, blended and exported.
GRAIN FITTINGS These were shifting boards and feeders for ships carrying full cargoes of grain. Special clauses had to be inserted into charterparties to cover the effect of these fitting on laytime.
GRAIN SPACE The grainspace is the complete capacity of the ship's cargo spaces (including hatchways), measured in cubic feet or cubic metres. The measurement are taken from the tank top or top of ceiling, where fitted, to the underside of the deck platting and to the ourside of the ship's frames. The grainspace is the capacity available for cargo shipped in bulk, which is free to flow between the frames and beams.
GREAT LAKES PORTS  Ports in the lakes of Canada and/or USA popular for grain shipments. Also refers to ports on the Great lakes of East Africa
GREAT LAKES SHIP  Cargo ship developed to carry raw materials and manufactured
goods on the Great Lakes. Most carry bulk cargoes of grain, iron ore or coal.
GRI (GENRRAL RATE INCREASE) This is the percentage increase of a line conference tariff of freight rates when in becomes necessary to cover costs and make a sufficient profit for an acceptable retuns on the carrier's investment. It is imposed after publication and a discussion period, usaually of about three months. 
GROSS & NET TONNAGE(GT and NT)  Gross tonnage is the basis on which manning rules and safety regulations are applied, and registration fees are reckoned. Port fees are also often reckoned on the basis of GT and NT. GT and NT are defined according to formulas which take account, among other things, of the volume of the vessel's enclosed spaces (GT) and the volume of its holds (NT). 
GROSS REGISTERED TONES  A common measurement of the internal volume of a ship with certain spaces excluded. One ton equals 100 cubic feet; the total of all the enclosed spaces within a ship expressed in tons each of which is equivalent to 100 cubic feet. 
GROSS TERMS (GROSS CHARTER)  Type of voyage charter in which the ship-owner pays for tally, loading, stowing, trimming and discharging costs. The alternative is fio, fios, fiot or foist where the cost of tally, loading, discharging, etc., are for charter's account. (However the port charges are paid by the ship-owner in all cases).
GROSS TONNAGE  The vessel's internal space measured in units of 100 cu.ft. The certificate of tonnage specifies the ship's gross tonnage. (Generally speaking, gross tonnage is a measure of the volume of a vessel and net tonnage represents the volume available for cargo, that is, the revenue earning space in a vessel). Different tonnage measurement systems (i.e British, Suez Canal or Panama Canal) have different tonnages for the same vessel.
GROSS WEIGHT Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment.  Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo tractor for highway transport.
GROUPAGE A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment.
GRT Gross Registered Tonnage is a notified measure of ship capacity calculated from the total volume of all enclosed spaces measured in cubic meters, using a standard formula.  For some ships types, especially those with complex hull forms, the gross tonnage and gross registered tonnage may be significantly different.
GUARANTEED FREIGHT  Freight payable whether the goods are delivered or not, provided the failure to deliver the goods resulted from causes beyond the carrier's control.
GUARANTEED SPACE PER TON In the grain trade from the River Plate charterers have a decided preference for vessels desposing of a good cubic capacity in relation to their deadweight capacity. Sometimes tha cubic capacity is guaranteed by the owners, in wich case the following clause be included in the CENTROCON charter.
HAGUE RULES  1924 International Convention on Carriage of Goods by Sea.
These rules govern liability for loss or damage to goods carried by sea under a bill of lading.
HAMBURG RULES V. HAGUE-VISBY RULES A summary comparison will be auempted here based on the "Hamburg Rules" Articles and the headings given to them in the Convention. The provision of the Hague-Visby Rules will be identified by the abbreviation "HVR" and Roman Numerals.
HANDY SIZE / MAX  Bulk carriers in the range of 20,000-50,000 tonnes dwt.
HARBOR Any place to which ships may resort for shelter, or to load passengers or goods, or to obtain fuel, water, or supplies. This term applies to such places whether proclaimed public or not and whether natural or  artificial
HARBOR MASTER An official responsible for construction, maintenance, operation, regulation, enforcement, administration and management pertaining to marinas, ports and harbors.
HARD AGROUND  A vessel which has gone aground and is incapable of refloating under her own power
HARMONIZED SYSTEM  An international commodity classification system, developed under auspices of Customs Cooperation Council, adopted by the United States in 1989 and increasingly the most widely accepted import/export classification methodology. Replaces SCHEDULE B export codes and TARIFF SCHEDULE OF THE U.S. import codes.
HATCH The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold.
HATCH BEAMS OR HATCH WEBS Hatch beams, also known as hatch webs, are found in older general cargo vessels. These are heavy, fitting into sockets welded or riverted to the inner side of the hatch coamings. The hatch beams serve to support portable hatch coveres. Hatch beams also restores to some extent the transverse structural strength of the vessel which has been affected by the ahsence of deck beams ove the full breadth of the ship.
HATCH COAMING  Steel parapet surrounding a hatchway which rises vertically to prevent (i) a person from falling into the hatch, and (ii) water from entering the hold.
HATCHWAYS The hatchways are the rectangular openings in the ship's decks giving n access to the cargo holds. The vertical plating around the hatchways is called the "hatch coaming". The hatchways are usually closed by hatch covers. The hatchways are made weather tight.
HAULAGE The inland transport service which is offered by the carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relative transport document. 
HAWSER Large strong rope or cable used for towing purposes and for securing or mooring ships. 
HAZ MAT An industry abbreviation for “Hazardous Material.”
HAZARDOUS CARGO  All substances of an inflammable, toxic or otherwise dangerous nature.
HAZARDOUS GOODS  Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety, or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when transported. Also called Dangerous Goods. 
HEAD CHARTERER  Most C/Ps allow the charterer to sub-let or sub-charter the vessel to other charterers. The original charterer is then called the “head charterer” or “disponent owner”.
HEATING COILS Vessels carrying cargo oil in bulk may be fitted with steam heating coils in order to maintain the required temperature for pumping. By circulating stream through the coils it is possible to increase the temperature gradually to the required level to facilitate pumping by reducing the liquid viscosity. Fuel oil tanks are also quipped with the necessary heating coils, in order to ensure sufficient liquid fluidity for pumping at all times.
HEAVY-LIFT CHARGE A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s normal tackle
HEAVY GRAINS, SOYA BEANS & SORGHUMS  What [SF44-49], soyabeans [SF48-52] and sorghums [SF 44-49] are considered as heavy grains. Also rye and maize are heavy grains. Barley and oats are classified as light grains. In practice heavy-grains constitute the bulk of the grain shipments.
HEAVY HANDY DEADWEIGHT SCRAP  A type of scrap metal cargo. It is neither very light nor very heavy and is therefore called “handy” with a SF of between 48-52.
HEAVY HAULER  Very heavy cargoes that require specialized equipment to move the products to and from ship/truck/rail/barge and terminals. This "heavy lift" machinery may be installed aboard a ship designed just for such transport. Shore cranes, floating cranes and lift trucks may also adapted for such heavy lifts.
HELMSMAN  An able-bodied seamen entrusted with the steering of a vessel.
HIGH CUBE  (Hi Cube, HQ) Any container exceeding 102 inches in height
HIRE  The payment for hiring a vessel on a time-chartered basis.
HOISTING ROPE  Special flexible wire or nylon rope for lifting purposes. 
HOLD A general name for the large compartments below the main deck designated for stowage of general cargo
HOLIDAY  Means a day of week (or part thereof) on which cargo work on the ship is suspended at the place of loading/discharging by reason of the local practice or custom. The day may usually be used for rest (Sunday) or may be observed as a religious festival (Christmas).
HOME PORT  Port from which a cruise ship loads passengers and begins its itinerary, and to which it returns to disembark passengers upon conclusion of voyage. Sometimes referred to as "embarkation port" and "turn around port."
HOPPER BARGE A barge which loads material dumped into it by a dredger and discharges the cargo through the bottom.
HOPPER CAR  A freight car used for handling dry bulks, with an openable top and one or more openings on the bottom through which the cargo is dumped.
HORSEPOWER (hp) The power developed by engines was expressed in "brake horse power". Power is now measured in watts (W). The multiple for ships' engines is in kilowatts (kW). 1 kW = 1.34 hp.
HOSTLER (OR HUSTLER)   A tractor, usually unlicensed, for moving containers within a yard. An employees who drives a tractor for the purpose of moving cargo within a container yard.
HOUSE B / L B / L   issued by a freight forwarder or consolidator covering a single shipment containing the names, addresses and specific description of the goods shipped.
HULL  The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, yards, sails, rigging, machinery and equipment.
HULL UNDERWRITER  The person with whom the ship’s hull, machinery apparel, and tackle is insured.
HUMPING The process pf connecting a moving rail car with a motionless rail car within classification yard in order to make up a train.  The cars move by gravity from an incline or “hump” onto the appropriate track.
HUSBANDING  Term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, ship repair, etc.
HYDROFOIL A craft that under acceleration rises above water but remains in contact with the surface through supporting legs.
I.L.W.U International Longshore and Warehouse Union, which operates on the West Coast. See labor unions and longshoremen.
ICD Inland Container Deport is a cargo storage and transit facility that is connected to a port by a rail.
ICE CLAUSE  To safeguard the ship-owner that the vessel is sent to a safe port free from ice, a protective clause dealing with ice, a protective clause dealing with ice conditions in inserted in the C/P.
IDENTITY OF SHIPPER While the Hague-Visby Rules and Hague Rules Definine the "carrier" and the "ship", they do not define the "shipper" although Art. I(a) refers to a "shipper" in its definition of a carrier. The Hamburg Rules are much more explicit. They define the shipper as being.
ILO International Labour Organization; Based in Geneva, it is one of the oldest components of the UN system of specialized agencies and has been involved over the years in appraising and seeking to improve and regulate conditions for seafarers. In its unusual tripartite way, involving official representatives of government, employer and employee interests, its joint Maritime Commission have been responsible for regulations involving the employment of foreign seafarers with regards to the application of minimum labour standards, on crew accommodation, accident prevention, medical examination and medical care, food and catering and competency of ships' officers
IMO International Maritime Organization: Formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1958 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices.
IMPLIED OBLIGATION OF REASONABLE DESPATCH If no time is agreed for performance under a contract of carriage, it is implied that the carrier will complete his performance with "reasonable despatch". This means that the contract will be performed within a reasonable period of imte, without delay which is beyond the carrier's control, provided that the carrier has acted reasonably and without negligence.
IMPORT  Shipment of goods from a foreign country.
IMPORT LICENSE A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods.
IMX This is transportation shorthand for intermodal exchange. In an IMX yard, containers can be lifted from truck chassis to rail intermodal cars or vice versa.
IN BOND  A term applied to the status of merchandise admitted provisionally to a country without payment of duties – either for storage in a bonded warehouse or for trans-shipment to another point, where duties will eventually be imposed.
IN GATE  The transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container is received by a rail terminal or water port from another carrier. 
IN GEOGRAPHICAL ROTAION  If an option is given to the charterers to load or discharge a ship in more than one part within a range of ports, it is important to state that if they exercise the option the ship will proceed to the ports in geographical rotation (without, for example, going north and south and then again north). This is important to the owner to determine the distance, time and fuel expenses.
IN-HOUSE BROKER This expression describes a shipbroker who confines his shipbroking services for the benefit of one company, perhaps a charter's or shipowner's compampany.
IN REGULAR (USUAL) TURN / TURN TIME  Turn refers to the sequence in which a vessel may be allowed to berth for (coal) loading or discharging by the port authorities due to congestion at the port (or availability of coal). Lay time does not generally count against the charterer while the ship is waiting its turn. However, if the C/P says “free of tune” then time waiting for a berth will count.
IN TRANSITU  On the passage.
IN WRITING  Writing means in relation to a notice of readiness, a notice in any manner or mode and includes fax, cable, telegram and telex.
INBOUND  Direction of vessel or cargo going to port of discharge or final destination.
INBOUND LOGISTICS  The movement of materials from suppliers and vendors into production processes or storage facilities.
INCENTIVE RATE A lower-than-usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper a greater volume than specified in the tariff.  The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume.
INCHMAREE (OR NEGLIGENCY) The so-called "Inchmaree" clause derives its name from the case of Hamilton v. james Maersey Insurance, 1987, involving the Inchmaree. According to this judgment, damage to machinery caused by negligence of members of the crew was not regarded as a maritime paril and the owners were not covered under the ordinary marine insurance policy. This "Inchmaree" clause is now included in the Institute Time Clauses (Hull) 1983.
INCOTERMS  Incoterms are a set of uniform rules codifying he interpretation of trade terms defining the rights and obligations of both buyer and seller in an international transaction. The terms recognised by Incoterms 1990 are: EXW - ex works (named place); FCA - Free Carrier (named place); FAS - Free alongside Ship (named port of shipment); FOB - Free on Board (named port of shipment); CFR - Cost & Freight (named port of destination); CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination); CPT - Carriage Paid To (named point of destination); CIP - Carriage & Insurance Paid To (named point of destination); DAF - Delivered at Frontier (named point); DES - Delivered ex Ship (named port of destination); DEQ - Delivered ex Quay (duty paid) (named port of destination); DDU - Delivered Duty Unpaid (named point); DDP - Delivered Duty Paid (named point).
INDEFINITE LAYTIME  This arises in cases where the ship owner agrees for the vessel to be loaded / discharged as fast as can, with customary dispatch, with customary quick dispatch or as per the custom of the port. In such cases there is no way to determine the exact time the vessel will take for loading and discharging.
INDEMNITY BOND An agreement to hold a carrier harmless with regard to a liability
INERT GAS SYSTEM  A system of preventing any explosion in the cargo tanks of a tanker by replacing the cargo, as it is pumped out, by an inert gas, often the exhaust of the ship's engine. Gas-freeing must be carried out subsequently if workers have to enter the empty tanks.
INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS  Liquids liable to spontaneous combustion, which gives off
inflammable vapours at or below 80 degrees F. For example, ether, ethyl, benzene, gasoline, paints, enamels, carbon disulfide, etc.
INHERENT VICE  A loss caused by the inherent nature of the thing insured and not the result of a casualty or external cause.
INLAND BILL OF LADING  A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter’s international carrier.
INLAND CARRIER A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points
INLAND WATERS  Term referring to lakes, streams, rivers, canals, waterways,
inlets, bays and the like.
INLAND WATERWAY AUTHORITY OF INDIA Inland Waterway Authority of India (IWAI) is the modal statutory authority created under the IWAI.  Act for purpose of developments of inland water way transport system in the country.
INNER HARBOUR Inner harbour refers to a natural area that gets created close to the shore line incursion of the sea into the land mass.
INSPECTION CERTIFICATE A certificate issued by an independent agent or firm attesting to the quality and / or quantity of the merchandise being shipped.  Such a certificate is usually required in a letter of credit for commodity shipments.
INSTITUTE WARRANTY LIMITS  In insurance, a set of warranties (i.e. same as conditions, in insurance) in a hull policy which prohibit the vessel from entering certain waters (mainly ice areas) without payment of additional premium or with a change in conditions.
INSULATED CONTAINER TANK The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.
IINTEGRATED LOGISTICS  A comprehensive, system-wide view of the entire supply chain as a single process, from raw materials supply through finished goods distribution.  All functions that make up the supply chain are managed as a single entity, rather than managing individual functions separately.
INTEGRATED TUG BARGE (ITB)  A large barge of integrated from the rear on to the bow of a tug purposely constructed to push the barge.

INTER PORT COMPETITION Inter port competition refers to market competition for the same cargo between two or more ports.
INTERCLUB AGREEMENT  An agreement by 14 mutual associations concerning the method of settling liability of cargo claims between ship owners and charterers. The Inter-Club New York Produce Exchange Agreement is a clause in the NYPE time C/P.
INTERCOA 80 This is the codename given to the Tanker Contract of Affreightment (CoA) issued in October 1980 by INTERTANKO, the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners, based in Oslo, Norway. INTERCOA is also "adopted " by BIMCO.
INTERMEDIATE HUB PORT International hub port refer to a port that acts as a cargo consolidation point for overseas bounded cargo from a number of surrounding port locations.  Bulk of the cargo handled through an international hub port are actually transshipped from other ports.
INTERMODAL  Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey.
INTERMODAL SHIPMENT  When more than one mode of transportation is used to ship cargo from origin to destination, it is called intermodal transportation. For example, boxes of hot sauce from Louisiana are stuffed into metal boxes called containers at the factory. That container is put onto a truck chassis (or a railroad flat car) and moved to a port. There the container is lifted off the vehicle and lifted onto a ship. At the receiving port, the process is reversed. Intermodal transportation uses few laborers and speeds up the delivery time.
INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION   Transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes such as by truck and rail or truck and oceangoing vessel.
INTERMODALISM The concept of transportation as a door-to-door service rather than port-to-port, using different forms of transportation, i.e. trains, ships, road but usually with a single carrier.
INTERNATIONAL CONTAINER BUREAU (BIC) This organisation was formed in 1933 under the auspics of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), ind is based in Paris. The organisation gives its name to the "BIC-Code" which is a system of registering each container in a unique manner, BIC is the main organisation for promoting and forming internaitonal links for the development of containerisation and combined transport.
INTERNATIONAL LOAD LINE CERTIFICATE  A certificate which gives details of a ship's freeboard and states that the ship has been surveyed and the appropriate load lines marked on her sides. The certificate is issued by a classification society or coastal authority such as a coast guard.
INTERNATIONAL OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND  An inter-governmental agency designed to pay compensation for oil pollution damage, exceeding the shipowner's liability. It was created by an IMO Convention in 1971 and began operations in October 1978. Contributions come mainly from the oil companies of member states.
INTERNATONAL TONNAGE Clearity, there are a number of differences between all the existing systems. This means that a ship's tonnage can vary depending on the application rules. The variations are reflected in financial consequences for shipowners.
INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT WORKERS’ FEDERATION  Organization which looks after the welfare of transport workers and deals with their pay and working conditions. It issues the “ITF Blue Certificate” to a ship if its owner complies with their requirements. Non-production of such a certificate can cause problems for a vessel in all Australian ports and in some ports of other countries.
INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS  Consist of international straits, inland and interocean canals and rivers where they separate the territories of two or more nations. Provided no treaty is enforced both merchant ships and warships have the right of free and unrestricted navigation through these waterways.
INTERNET APPLICATIONS - SHIPMENT DETAIL CargoSmart provides shipment summaries, shipment details, and standard reports. Users view shipment summaries sorted by shipment status, routes, or locations. Users can also look up shipment details by booking, bill of lading, invoice, and reference numbers (purchase order, invoice, etc). Details include reference numbers, status, parties, routing, general cargo, reefer, and dangerous goods information. Standard reports include active booking and bills of lading information. 
INTERTANKO  An association of independent tanker owners whose aims are to represent the views of its members internationally. 
INTRA-PORT-COMPETITION Intra port competition refers to competition for cargo between various cargo terminal operators at a single port location.
INTRACOASTAL  Domestic shipping routes along a single coast.
INSULATED CONTAINER A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.
INSULATED TANK CONTAINER  The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.
INVOICE A detailed statement showing goods sold or shipped and amounts for each. The invoice is prepared by the seller and acts as the document that the buyer will use to make payment. 
IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT  A letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee.
ISPS CODE  The International Ship and Port Facility Code adopted by an IMO Diplomatic Conference in December 2002. Measure is designed to strengthen maritime security. (ISPS Code - Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS). 
ISSUING BANK Bank that opens a straight or  negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit.
ISSUING CARRIER The carriers issuing transportation documents or publishing a tariff.
JACOB'S LADDER  A rope ladder suspended from the side of a vessel and used for boarding.
JETSAM  those things that sink in the water - they don't float like flotsam
Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger.
JETTISON CLAUSE  Clause in a B/L or C/P setting out the circumstances under which a master is entitled to jettison goods from a vessel. (Jettison is to throw goods overboard for the purpose of lightening the ship).
JETTY  A structure projecting out to sea, designed to protect a port from waves but also used to berth ships.
JIB Arm of a crane which extends outwards. At one end hangs the hook used for lifting goods.
JIT The abbreviation for "just in time," which is a way to minimize warehousing costs by having cargo shipped to arrive just in time for its use. This inventory control method depends on extremely reliable transportation.
JOINT RATE A rate applicable from a point on one transportation lime to appoint on another line, made by agreement and published in a single tariff by all transportation lines over which the rate applies.
JONES ACT  Contentious US Merchant Marine Act of 1920, Section 27, requiring that all U.S. domestic waterborne trade be carried by U.S.-flag, U.S.-built, and U.S.-manned vessels.
JUMBOISING  Conversion of a ship to increase its cargo area capacity by dividing the ship and adding a new section. 
KEEL This is a continuous plate running the entire lengh of the vessel at the middle part of the bottom plating.
KEEL CLEARANCE  Minimum distance between the bottom of a ship and the bed of sea, also called under keel clearance.
KING PIN A coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor.
KIOCL Kudremukh Iron ore Company Limited is one of the largest mining iron ore exporting companies in Karnataka.
KNOCK DOWN  (KD) An article taken apart, folded or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least 33 1/3% below its assembled bulk.
KNOT (Nautical) The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile, or 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.
KNOWN LOSS  A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. 
LADING The cargo carried in a transportation vehicle 
LAGAN  Cargo or equipment to which an identifying marker or buoy is fastened, thrown over-board in time of danger to lighten a ship's load. Under maritime law if the goods are later found they must be returned to the owner whose marker is attached; the owner must make a salvage payment
LAID-UP  Ships not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets, needing work for classification, etc.
LAKER  Type of ship that trades only in the Great Lakes of North America. They carry predominantly grain and ore cargoes.
LANDED COSTT The total cost of a good to a buyer, including the cost of transportation.
LANDLORD PORT  At a landlord port, the port authority builds the wharves, which it then rents or leases to a terminal operator (usually a stevedoring company). The operator invests in cargo-handling equipment (forklifts, cranes, etc), hires longshore laborers to operate such lift machinery and negotiates contracts with ocean carriers (steamship services) to handle the unloading and loading of ship cargoes.
LANDLUBBER  what you are if you’re not a seaman. 
LANE METER  A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width.
LASH A marine industry abbreviations for “Lighter Abroad Ship.” A specially constructed vessel equipped with an overhead crane for lifting specially designed barges and stowing them into cellular slots in an arthwartship position.
LASH BARGES Covered barges that carriers load on board oceangoing ships for movement to foreign destinations. 
LASH SHIPS  LASH stand for Lighter Aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship carrying very large floating containers, or 'lighters'. The ship carries its own heavy-duty crane for loading and discharging the lighters over the stern. The lighters each have a capacity of about 400 tons and are stowed in the holds and on deck. While, the ship is at sea with one set of lighters, further sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about 15 minutes per lighter, no port or dock facilities are needed, and the lighters can be grouped for pushing by towboats along inland waterways.
LASH VESSEL Designed to load internally, barges specifically designed for the vessel. The concept is to quickly float the barges to the vessel (using tugs or ships wenches) load these barges through the rear of the vessel, then sails. Upon arrival at the foreign port, the reverse happens; Barges are quickly floated away from the vessel and another set of waiting barges quickly are loaded. Designed for quick vessel turn-around. Usually crane-equipped; handles mostly breakbulk cargo.
LASHING EXPENSES Some cargo on a voyage-chartered ship may have to be secured. A clause in the charterparty should clearly state which side is to be responsible for the expenses of such sucuring.
LAUNCH SERVICE Companies that offer "water-taxi" service to ships at anchor.
LAY-BY  ships that are laid up usually waiting for cargo or a charter, often outside a port.
LAY-UP  To stop trading a ship temporarily due to bad markets. During lay-up the daily running lost of the ship is greatly reduced.
LAYCAN  Stands for “laydays commencing / laydays canceling” and is a spread of dates which provides for the earliest date for the ship to arrive and for lay time to commence and also gives the last date for the charterer to cancel the charter if the vessel does not arrive by the date.
LAYDAYS  The correct interpretation of this is the earliest time when the vessel is expected to be ready for loading and/ or discharging. (Sometimes the word is used to refer to “lay time” but then this leads to confusion. Lay time is the period allowed for the cargo to be loaded and/or discharged).
LAYEAN This is the abbreviation used for the "Laydays and cancelling clause" in a charterparty. The clause provides for the eartiest time when the charterer expects the master of the vessel to give a Notice of Readiness and for laytime to commence and also gives the charterer an option to cancel the charterer if this event does not occur before a certain date. The phrase, "laycan", is very commonly used in negogiations and descussions and in communications before a future It can also be found in reports of market fixtures.
LAYTIME  Means the period of time agreed between the parties during which the owner will make and keep the ship available for loading/ discharging without payment additional to the freight. The time allowed to the charterer is not indefinite. The time is either “fixed” or “calculable”.
LCL Less than Container Load refers to partial stuffing of the containers, which are moved between ports due to non availability of full container cargo loads.
LCL - NVO More often known as “Consolidator”. Their business focuses on providing services related to consolidate parts or smaller consignments, LCL (Less than Container Load) cargoes into larger unit. They derive profit by paying the vessel operating carrier the lower consolidated rate.
LEDGES  underwater rock ridges and mountains that rise near the surface of the sea. 
LEGEND  A group of symbols and definitions on a chart or map. 
LENGTH OVERALL  Maximum length between the extreme ends (forward and aft) of the ship. (Also referred to as “overall length”).
LESS THAN CONTAINER LOAD  A consignment of cargo which is insufficient to fill a shipping container. It is grouped with other consignments for the same destination in a container at a container freight station.
LETTER OF CREDIT – COMMERCIAL  A letter addressed by a bank, at the insurance and responsibility of a buyer of merchandise, to a seller, authorizing him to draw drafts to a stipulated amount under specified terms and undertaking conditionally or unconditionally to provide eventual payment for drafts.
LETTER OF INDEMINITY  A written statement in which one party (shipper) undertakes to compensate another (ship-owner) for the cost and/or consequences of carrying out a certain act, e.g., obtaining a release of goods without producing an original B/L.
LIEN  The right to retain control of cargo until the charges related to it are paid.
LIFEBOAT An exercise conducted on board every ship to familiarise crew and any passengers with how to evacuate the ship in an emergency. The master of every vessel is bound by international law to make the officers, crew and passengers adequately acquainted with the procedures of lowering and the use of lifeboats in case of emergency.
LIFO (LINER IN FREE OUT) This abbrevation indicates that the shipowner bears all costs for loading, stowing and trimming the cargo and all the costs incurred for the discharge are to be borne by the charterer, or receiver, or consignee.
LIFT ON-LIFT OFF  (LO/LO) Cargo handling technique involving transfer of commodities to and from the ship using shoreside cranes or ship's gear.
LIGHT CARGO  Goods which fill the ship cubically but do not bring it down to its marks are called light cargoes. (Goods which bring the ship down to its marks but do not completely fill the space available for cargo are called heavy cargoes).
LIGHT DISPLACEMENT RO LIGHT WEIGHT This expression related to the weight or the hull completely equipped, plus the weight of the machinery, boilers, libricating oils, cooling water, water in boilers and spare parts, but excluding bunkers, their personal effects and fresh water. The vessel's drakught at light displacement is called "light draught".
LIGHT DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE  The weight of a ship's hull, machinery, equipment and spares. This is often the basis on which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping. The difference between the loaded displacement and light displacement is the ship's deadweight.
LIGHTER An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to / from alongside a vessel.
LIGHTER ABOARD SHIP  An ocean ship which carries barges. These barges are loaded with cargo, often at a variety of locations, towed to the ocean ship, sometimes referred to as the mother ship, and lifted or, in some cases, floated on board. After the ocean crossing, the barges are off-loaded and towed to their various destinations. The ocean ship then receives a further set of barges, which have been assembled in readiness. This concept was designed to eliminate the need for specialized port equipment and to avoid transhipment with its consequent extra cost.
LIGHTERAGE Refers to carriage of goods by lighter and the charge assessed there from.
LIGHTENNING (OR LIGHTERAGE)  To reduce the draft of the vessel so as to enable it to enter the part/berth where the depth of available water is restricted. This may be achieved by lightening or lighterage by discharging part of the cargo in barges outside the port/berth.
LINER A vessel advertising sailing on a specified trade route on a regular basis.  It is not necessary that every named port be called on every voyage.
LINER IN FREE OUT  The ship-owner bears all costs for loading (stowing, trimming etc.). The charterer (or receiver/consignee) pays all costs incurred for discharge at the destination part.
LINER SERVICE Vessels operating on fixed itineraries or regular schedules and established rates available to all shippers. The freight rates which are charged are based on the shipping company's tariff or if the company is a member of a liner conference, the tariff of that conference. 
LINER SHIP OPERATORS  Operators who trade ships regularly from one port to another.
LINER TERMS  A rate that includes freight plus handling charges at loading and discharging ports. (Similar to “Gross terms” used in bulk cargo tramp vessels).
LIQUIDATED DAMAGES The penalty a seller must pay if the construction projects does not meet contractual standards or deadlines.
LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING   British classification society. 
LINER CONFERENCE This is an association or organisaton of ship-owning or shipoperating companies ("carriers") offering scheduled liner services between specified ports and at a fixed, common ("tarrif") of freight retes. The associatin is formed under the terms of an agreement, called a "rate agreement". Formally, a liner conference is defined in the United Nation Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences 1974.
LNG CARRIER  Liquefied natural gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminium alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -2,850F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much as an oil tanker of the same size.
LOAD FACTOR  Percentage of cargo or passengers carried e.g. 4000 tons carried on a vessel of 10,000t capacity has a load factor of 40%.
LOAD LINE The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, wither by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classifications, or the conditions of service.
LOAD LINES CONVENTION 1966 The regulations laid down in the Load Lines Convention 1930 were revised in July 1968 when the Internaitonal Convertion on Load Lines 1966 came into forece. In general the 1966 Convention allows for a  smaller freeboard for large ships, but calls for more stringent protection of opening in deck and superstructures. The tabular freeboard of dry cargo ships, if fitted with steel watertight hatch covers, has been considerably reduced.
LOADED LEG  Subdivision of a ship's voyage during which the ship is carrying cargo.
LOADING BROKER This is an agent involved in the process of finding cargo for a shipowner
LOAN RECEIPT  Document signed by the Assured where he acknowledges receipt of money advanced by the insurance company as an interest-free loan (instead of payment of a loss) repayable to the insurance company only if the loss is recovered from a third party and then only to the extent of the recovery.
LOCAL CARGO Cargo delivered to / from the carrier where origin / destination of the cargo is in the local area.
LOG a record of details of a voyage made by a ship’s captain or crew. Also. A device for measure. 
LOGISTICS  The process of planning, implementing, and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. This definition includes inbound, outbound, internal, and external movements. 
LONG TON 2,240  pounds
LONGSHOREMEN These are workers in a port and who are involved in the handling of cargo. In most places they are called "stevedores" but particularly in the U.S.A. the name given to these workers in "longshoremen".
LOOKOUT  A member of the crew stationed on the forecastle, bridge, or in the case of sailing vessels, the crow's nest at the top of one of the main masts. His duty it is to watch for any dangerous objects or for any other vessels approaching .
LOSS OF MARKET  A situation in which, for one reason or another, sound cargo is no longer wanted by the consignee when it arrives. This is a “business loss” not recoverable under a Marine Cargo Policy; e.g., Christmas trees arriving in January undamaged.
LOWER HOLD General cargo vessels may have one or two tweendecks (upper and lowe) dividing the cargo compartments into lower hold and tween deck space.
LOWEST ASTRONOMICAL TIDE  It presupposes that at the very worst there would always be that depth of available water at the particular spot.
LTL Means a shipment that is "less than truckload". Cargoes from different sources are usually consolidated to save costs.
LUMPSUM FREIGHT / CHARTER A fixed sum is paid to the ship-owner regardless of the quantity of cargo actually shipped.
MAIDEN VOYAGE  A new boat’s first trip. 
MAINTENANCE DREDGING Maintenance dredging refers to the dredging work undertaken by a port at regular intervals to maintain the draft of the approach channel and draft along – side  berths, especially in case of riverine and estuary ports.
MAJOR PORTS Major Ports in India are those ports that are notifies as “major ports” under the Major Ports Trusts Act 1963.
MALPRACTICE A carrier giving customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can be take form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (under cubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the assessment of a lower tariff rate, waiving published tariff charge for demurrage, CFS handling or equalization; providing specialized equipment to a shipper to the detriment of other shippers etc.
MANIFEST  An itemized list by Bill of Lading number of the kind and quantity of all cargoes loaded aboard a vessel, prepared by the vessel’s Master.
MANNING SCALES  The minimum number of officers and crewmembers that can be engaged on a ship to be considered as sufficient hands with practical ability to meet every possible eventuality at sea.
MARINE INSURANCE Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea, Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc, but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier.
MARINE SURVEYOR Person who inspects a ship hull or its cargo for damage or quality.
MARINE INSURANCE MARKETS A market is an environment in which the buying and selling of goods or services is carried out. These transactions can be carried out in a "market place" but the word "market" is more applicable to the entire system which therefore comprises a number of components, such as  the buyers and  the sellers and middlemen.
MARITIME Business pertaining to commence or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction.
MARITIME DECLATATION OF HEALTH When a vessel arrival at a Dort to which health regulations apply, the master may be required to make a report about the health conditions on board his vessel and also about any circumstances on board which are likely to cause the spread of infection disease. He needs to make a report if his ship is not a "healthy ship"
MARITIME DOMAIN It is all areas and things of, on, under, relating to, or bordering on  a sea, ocean, or, other navigable waterway ,including all maritime related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances.
MARITIME LIEN  A claim attached to the res, i.e., the ship, freight, or cargo.
MARITIME PERILS The Marine Insurance Act 1906 states: " 'Maritime perils' means the perils consequent on, or incidental to, the navigation of the sea, that is to say, perils of the sea, fire, war perils, pirates, rovers, thieves, captures, seizures, restraints and detainments of princes and people, jettisons, barratry, and any other perils, either of the like kind, or which may be designated by the policy.:
MARK  As used on containers in foreign trade, a symbol or initials shown together with the port of importation and the final destination, if different. Example  A.G. y Cia., Bogota via Barranquilla. Marks are registered at appropriate customs houses; they also appear on bills of lading and invoices. In domestic trade, it is common to mark containers with the name and address of the recipient, but this is rarely done in foreign trade.
MARPOL The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships, s modified by the several Protocols. Part of the IMO.
MARSHALING YARD  This is a container parking lot, or any open area where containers are stored in a precise order according to the ship loading plan. Containers terminals may use a grounded or wheeled layout. If the cargo box is placed directly on the ground, it is called a grounded operation. If the box is on a chassis/trailer, it is a wheeled operation.
MASTHEAD LIGHT  A white light positioned over the fore and aft centreline of the vessel.
MATE’S RECEIPT An archaic practice.  An acknowledgement of cargo receipt signed by a mate of the vessel.  The possessor of the mate’s receipt is entitled to the bill of lading in exchange for that receipt.
MATERIALS HANDLING The physical handling of products and materials between procurement and shipping 
MEAN DRAFT  Average of forward and aft draft of a vessel.
MEAN HIGH WATER (MHW):  Highest average level water reaches on an outgoing tide
MEAN LOW WATER (MLW) Lowest average level water reaches on an outgoing tide
MEASUREMENT CARGO Freight on which transportation charges are calculated on the basis of volume measurement.
MEASUREMENT TON Forty cubic feet; used in water transportation ratemaking
MECHSNICAL DRY BULK CARGO Mechanical dry bulk cargo refer to those dry bulk cargo items like coal, iron ore, clinkers etc which are loaded and unloaded from ships at ports using mechanized cargo handling facilities like conveyors and other technology aided means.
MEMORANDUM BILL OF LADING An in-house bill of lading. A duplicate copy.
METHOD OF CALCULATING LAYTIME For example, "per workable hatch per day", "Soundays and Holidays excepted, unless used"…
MIN/ MAX  Minimum and maximum cargo; a fixed quantity.
MINOR PORTS Minor ports in India are those that are outside the purview of the major Port Trust Act and which are administered by respective State governments or the State Maritime Boards (SMBs) constituted for the purpose.
MISREPRESENTATION This word is closely related to the low government contracts, including charterers. The word means a statement that gives a wrong or false impression or that contains wrong or false information and one party in induced into entering into the contract. For example, to state that the deadweight capacity of a ship is 55,000 tonnes when it is raally 50,000 tonnes is to "misrepresent" a fact. Other misrepresentations can be in  the description of the ship, such as its name or cargo capacity.
MIXED POLICY A contract for both voyage and time, e.g., cargo may be insured from London to Hong Kong and for 60 days thereafter, or a ship insured from a discharge port to a demolitin port for two months.
MODAL SPLIT  The relative use that companies make of transportation modes; the statistics include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue
MOORING LINE  A cable or line used to tie up a ship.
MORE OR LESS CHARTERER’S OPTION  Gives the option to the charterer to increase or decrease the quantity of cargo by a percentage agreed in advance.
MORE OR LESS OWNER’S OPTION  Gives the option to the ship-owner to increase or decrease the quantity of cargo by a percentage agreed in advance, e.g., 10,000 tonnes 5% more or less in owner’s option, means that the ship-owner may load between 9500 to 10500 tonnes of cargo.
MOTHER VESSELS Mother vessels are large cargo ships that operate on major trade routes carrying cargo that are consolidated for them by smaller feeder ships from a number of smaller ports.
MULTI-PURPOSE BERTHS Multi-purpose berths refer to berths, which can handle more than one type of cargo
MULTIMODAL Synonymous for all practical purpose with “Intermodal.”
MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT CONTRACT This is define in the Multimodal Convention 1980 as: "a contract whereby a multimodal transport operator undertakes, against payment of freight, to perform, or to procure the performance of international multimodal.
MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT DOCUMENT (MTD) This is also defined to the above Convention as : "a document which evidences a multimodal transport contract, the taking in charge of the goods by the multimodal transport operator, and an undertaking by him to delivery the goods n accordance with the terms of that contract."
MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OPERATOR (MTO) This person is: "any person who on his own behalf or through another person acting on his behalf concludes a multimodal transport contract and who acts as a principal, not as an agent or on behalf of the consignor or of the carriers participating in the multimodal transport operations, and who assumes liability for the performance of the contract."
MULTIMODALISM This can also be called "Combined Transport" and also "Intermodalism". The word "Multimodal" is more related to International Multimodal Transport which is defined in the Multimodal Convention 1980.
MULTIPURPOSE SHIP  Any ship capable of carrying different types of cargo which require different methods of handling. There are several types of ships falling into this category, for example, ships which can carry roll on/roll off cargo together with containers. Ships that are designed to carry both dry, loose cargo and cargo in containers.
MULTI TANK CONTAINER A container frame fitted to accommodate two or more separate tanks for liquids.
NAME OF THE VESSEL The name of the vessel in negotiations and in the charterparty should be correct and precise. Wrong spelling may lead to claims for misrepresentation. The description of the vessel can be checked against its name in reference materials such as Lloyed's Register of Ships but even these entries may not always be currect. Other checks should be carried out.
NAMED BILL OF LADING This bill of lading requires the goods to be delivered to a named person. It difters from an "order bill of lading" (which see below). The negotiability, it is similar to a "waybill" or "straight bill of lading". The goods will be delivered to the person who produces proof that he is the person named in the bill. Although the named bill of lading in not negotiable, it is a document of tittle or proof of ownership
NATIONAL FLAG  flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.
NATURAL HARBOUR Natural harbour, such as Mumbai, is formed when a large portion sea ingresses into land mass and create a natural sea-front, which does not experience normal ocean currents and which provide tranquil and safe waterfront for ships to sail into and out of the port.
NAUTICAL MILE a measurement used by sailors that equals 6,080 feet (a land mile is 5,280 feet) . 
NAVIGATE to steer or manage a ship, to sail or voyage over water. 
NEGOTIABLE B / L The B / L  a title document to the goods, issued “to the order of” a party, usually the shipper, whose endorsement is required to effect is negotiation.  Thus, a shipper’s order (negotiable) B / L can be bought, sold, or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly used for letter-of-credit transactions.  The buyer must submit the original B / L to the carrier in order to take possession of the goods.
NEO-BILK CARGO  Uniformly packaged goods, such as wood pulp bales, which stow as solidly as bulk, but are handled as general cargoes.
NEOBULK Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap metal.
NESTING  Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is particularly relevant in the presentation  of tankage strakes for transport.
NET CAPACITY  The number of tons of cargo which a vessel can carry when loaded in salt water to her summer freeboard marks. Also called cargo carrying capacity, cargo deadweight, useful deadweight.
NET CHARTER  After delivery of the vessel in the first port of loading, the charterer pays all additional port charges, cost of loading and discharging in the first and any additional port of loading and in the port of discharge. After completion of discharge the vessel is re-delivered to the owner and the outward port charges from the port of redelivery is for the owner’s account. (Not a popular form of chartering nowadays).
NET REGISTERED TONS This tonnage is frequently shown on ship registration papers; it represents the volumetric area available for cargo at 100 cubic feet = 1 ton. It often is used by port and canal authorities as a basis for charges.
NET TONNAGE  The figure represents the total revenue earning space (volume) within a ship available for the cargo. This is gross tonnage less “deductions” and less “allowances for propelling machinery space” and is calculated in units of 100 cu.ft. (Net tonnage is also referred as “register” tonnage).
NET WEIGHT Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrapping, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without weight of the can.
NEUTRAL BODY An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as  a self-policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel.  Violations are reported to the  membership and significant penalties are assessed.
NOMENCLATURE OF THE CUSTOMS COOPERATION COUNCIL The customs tariff used by most countries worldwide.  It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System.
NON-CONFERENCE LINE A shipping line which operates on a route served by a liner conference but which is not a member of that conference.
NON-DEMISE CHARTERS  Time and voyage charters fall under this category as opposed to demise and bareboat charters.
NON-DUMPING CERTIFICATE Required by some countries for protection against the dumping of certain types of merchandise or products.
NON-LINER SERVICE  A shipping service that does not operate to a fixed itinerary or regular schedule. Someone once compared a non-liner service to a taxi service, going here, going there, anywhere to pick up a farefreight, whereas a Liner Service is like a bus service
NON-NEGOTIABLE B / L See Straight B / L. Sometimes means a file copy of a B / L.
NON-REVERSIBLE / NORMAL LAYTIME  Means notice by the master or his agent to the charterer, shipper, receiver or any other persons as required by the charterer, that the ship has arrived at the port or berth as the case may be and is ready to load/discharge in all respects. Lay time begins to count from the moment when NOR has been tendered by charterers/consignees.
NON-VESSEL OPERATING COMMON CARRIER (NVOCC) A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from  a carrier and sub-sell it to smaller shippers.  The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the actual ocean or inter modal service.
NON-WORKING DAYS A "working day" in the context of laytime in a day on which cargo operations are carried out in the usual manner in a port and without extra payment such as for overtime. If a day on which work is carried out but at overtime or "penalty" rates, such a day may be called a "non-wokrking". A non-working day may or may not be counted as laytime, depending on the words in the charterparty. A non-working day is not normally a "holiday" or a day of rest unless it is actually a day with such attributes.
NON-WORKING TIME Non-working time is a port is measured in terms of time duration  when a berth remains vacant and unused.
NORGRAIN 89 CLAUSE 6 "The Master is to sign Bill of Lading as presented on the North American Grain Bill of Lading Form without prejudice to the terms, conditions and exceptions of the Charterparty. If the Master elects to delegate the signing of Bills of Lading to his Agents he shall give them authority to do so in writing, copy of which is to be furnished to Charterers if so required."
NORSKE VERITAS  Norwegian classification society
NOTICE OF READINESS This is a "….notice to the Charterer, shipper, receiver or other person as required by the charter that the ship has arrived at the port or berth as the case may be and is rady to load/discharge".
NOTIFY PARTY  The abbreviation of the name of an organization that should be notified when a shipment reaches its destination
NVO Non-vessel-operating common carrier, a ships agent, conducts business for the ship but does not operate the vessel.
NVOCC A non-vessel-owning common carrier that buys space aboard a ship to get a lower volume rate. An NVOCC then sells that space to various small shippers, consolidates their freight, issues bills of lading and books space aboard a ship
OBO SHIP  A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and oil. Although more expensive to build, they ultimately are more economical because they can make return journeys with cargo instead of empty.
OCEAN BILL OF LADING  Bill of lading indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified foreign market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection. If it is a straight B/L, the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a negotiable B/L is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond, or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller.
OCEAN CARRIER Diesel-fueled vessels have replaced the old steamships of the past, although many people still refer to modern diesel ships as steamships. Likewise, the person who represents the ship in port is still often called a steamship agent. (See: steamship agent)
OCEAN WAYBILL  A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract carriage. 
OF 24 CONSECUTIVE HOURS OF OF 24 RUNNING HOURS These are actually consecutive hours during "working days" which are not expressly exceptions from laytime and not holidays
OFF-HIRE CLAUSE  In a time C/P it specifies the circumstances under which hire is suspended or reduced.
OFF-LOAD  Discharge of cargo from a ship. 
OFF-HIRE or DOWNTIME  When a ship is temporarily out of operation, in accordance with the terms of the relevant charterparty, with a loss of agreed hire as a result.
OFFICER  Any of the licensed members of the ship's complement. 
OFFSHORE SERVICE VESSELS  Special vessels employed for the exploration, development or continuous production of subsea oil and gas. 
OIL RECORD BOOK  A book or log kept by the master of an oil tanker wherein every discharge or escape of oil is recorded
OIL TANKER  A ship designed for the carriage of oil in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several or many tanks. Tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps and discharge using their own pumps.
OILER An unlicensed member of the engine room staff who oils and greases bearings and moving parts of the main engine and auxiliaries. Most of this work is nowadays done automatically and the oiler merely insures it operates correctly.
ON BOARD A notation on a bill of lading that cargo has been loaded a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express  requirements to the contrary
ON DECK A  notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship.
ON DEMURRAGE  Means that the lay time has expired. Unless the C/P expressly provides to the contrary the time on demurrage will not be subject to the lay time exceptions.
ON HER BEAM ENDS This terms is used t describe a vessel which has listed as result of shifitng of cargo ballast to such an extent that her deck edge is submerged and her righting power is insufficient to restore the original possition.
ON-DOCK RAIL  Direct shipside rail service. Includes the ability to load and unload containers/breakbulk directly from rail car to vessel.
ONCE ON DEMURRAGE ALWAYS ON DEMURRAGE  Time on demurrage is continuous unless exceptions to demurrage are contained in the C/P.
OPEN  Said of a ship, which is available at a particular place to load her next cargo, having discharged the last one.
OPEN ACCOUNT A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyers without guarantee of payment.
OPEN CHARTER  A C/P in which neither the ports of destination nor the nature of the cargoes are specified and the vessel may fix for any cargo and for any ports.
OPEN POLICY  A cargo policy with no expiration date that provides automatic coverage of cargo to or from an Assured in a specified trade at agreed rates, terms, and conditions. Usually consists of separate Marine and War policies.
OPEN PORT  A port that is free of ice.
OPEN RATES  Pricing systems that are flexible and not subject to conference approval. Usually applied to products in which tramps are substituted for liners.
OPEN REGISTRY  A term also described as "flag of convenience" or "flag of necessity" to denote registry in a country which offers favourable tax, regulatory, and other incentives to ship owners from other nations.
OPEN SEA The water area of the open coast seaward of the ordinary low water mark, or seaward of inland waters.
OPEN TOP CONTAINER A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.
OPERATING PORT  At an operational port like Charleston, South Carolina, the port authority builds the wharves, owns the cranes and cargo-handling equipment and hires the labor to move cargo in the sheds and yards. A stevedore hires longshore labor to lift cargo between the ship and the dock, where the port’s laborers pick it up and bring it to the storage site
OPERATING RATIO A comparison of a carrier’s operating expense with its net sales.  The most general measure of operating efficiency.
OPERATOR The holder of a freight contract with a cargo shipper.
ORDINARY SEAMAN  A deck crewmember that is subordinate to the Able Bodied Seamen.
ORE CARRIER  A large ship designed to be used for the carriage of ore. Because of the high density of ore, ore carriers have a relatively high centre of gravity to prevent them from rolling heavily at sea with possible stress to the hull.
ORE-OIL CARRIER  A ship designed to carry either ore or oil in bulk.
ORIGIN Location where shipment begins its movements.
ORIGINAL BILL OF LADING (OBL) A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract.  Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier.
OUT-OF-POCKET EXPENCES The out-of-pocket expenses of a vessel in operation only cover the extra expenses which are incurred in comparison with a vessel lying idle in the home port. Wages, food, ect., as well as depreciation charges in full can be deducted from the running coasts of the vessel in operation, in order to arrival at the out-of-pocket expenses.
OUTPUT PER SHIP BERTHDAY A performance indicated of berth productivity measured in terms of the tonnage of cargo handled per ship per single berth day.
OVER-DIMENSIONAL CARGO Over-dimensional cargo refers to non-standard or large-sized and odd shaped cargo that need to be handled exclusively for their safe transportation.
OVERCHARGE To change more than the proper amount according to the published rates.
OVERSTOWING A clause in a charterparty may allow either the charterer or the owner to load cargo over the original cargo, if there is available space and deadweight capacity avalable. However, overstowing may cause problems with the time for discharge of the original cargo as occured in the case of The Maxico I, 1990. (See the last paragraphs in Optional cargo clause above.) Overstowing by the owner may also lead to claims if the cargo beneath is damaged.
OVERTONNAGING  A situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade for the level of available cargoes. 
OWNER'S AGENTS If the consignment clause in a charterparty provides for charterers' agents to be employed at ports of loading or discharge, it is in owners' interests to appoint their own agents who can assist the matter in any controversy which may arise. Ordinarily charterers' agents will protect their principals' interests first and owners' interests second. Should difficulties aries, the master should be in a position to apply to owners' agents who are familiar with the custom of the port Owner's agents may be called "protecting agents"
OWNER'S BROKER The shipbroker whose services are used by a shipwoner alone in a negotiation. This contrast with a charterer's agent or broker, who represents only the charterer.
P & I BUNKERING CLAUSE  The ship is permitted to deviate without breaking the contract for lifting bunkers at ports where it may be cheaper.
PAIRED Port of Arrival Immediate Release and Enforcement Determination. A U.S. Customs program that allows entry documentation for an import shipment to be filed at one location, usually an inland city, while the merchandise is cleared by Customs at the port of entry, normally a seaport. May be ineffective with certain types of high-risk cargoes, such as quota-regulated textiles or shipments from drug-production regions. Cities where there is a natural flow of cargo are actually "paired" in the program; e.g., Atlanta, an inland city, is linked with Savannah, a seaport. Tested in '87-'88, it became generally available in mid- '88.
PALLER WRAPPING MACHINE  A machine that wraps a pallet's contents in stretch-wrap to ensure safe shipment. 
PALLET  A low portable platform, usually wooden, on which cargo is stacked for storage or transportation; a skid.
PANAMA CANAL TONNAGE This is tonnage measured accorfing to rules published by the United States Government from 1912 under authority delegated by the Panama Canal Company. The main purpose of the special measurement system is to establish criteria which determine the owner's liability to pay fees for Panama Canal transits.
PANAMAX  A bulk carrier of about 65,000 tonnes deadweight whose dimensions enable her to transit the Panama Canal where due to locks draft, beam and length are limiting factors.
PARCEL-SIZE Parcel size refers to the tonnage per shipment handled by a cargo carrying ship with reference  to a commodity per single voyage between port of origin and port of destination.
PARTIAL CONTAINERSHIPS  Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo
PARTIAL SHIPMENTS Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permitted.”
PASSENGER JETTY Passenger jetty refers to an artificially created RCC structure used for landing passenger vessels and for disembarking of passengers.
PASSENGER SHIP  A ship with accommodation which is authorized to carry more than twelve passengers.
PEAGE DUES These dues were payable by shipowners in North African ports when loading full cargoes of phospate in bulk. The port authorities would charge peage dues in order to defray the expenses for upkeep nad improvement of the port and its installations.
PEAK TANKS Distinction is made between the forepeak tank and aft peak tank. The forepeak is the space between the stem and the collision bulkhead. The distance between the stem and the collision bulkead must be at least 5 per cent of the ship's length and not more than 8 per cent. The forepeak tank is the part of the forepeak up to the deck
PENALTY CLAUSE A possible Penalty clause in a voyage charterparty for non-fulfillment of the contract can state:. The penalty for non-performance of this agreement shall be damages not exceeding the estimate amount of freight. This is the "agreed" or "liquidated" damages in the same way as demurrage is agreed for breach of the laytime clause.
PER CONTAINER RATE  Rates and/or changes on shipments transported in containers or trailers and rated on the basis of the category of the container or trailer.
PER HATCH PER DAY  The expressionist used to calculate lay time with reference to the number of cargo hatches serving cargo compartments on the vessel. Lay time is to be calculated by multiplying the agreed rate per hatch of loading/discharging the cargo by the number of ship’s hatches and dividing the quantity of cargo by the resulting sum. Thus, Lay time= Quantity of Cargo/Daily Rate x Number of Hatches = Days; A hatch that is capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as two hatches.
PER WORKING HATCH PER DAY or PER WORKABLE HATCH PER DAY  This expression is more in charterer’s favour than “per hatch per day”. The word “working” or “workable” hatch means that hatch can be worked because there is cargo in the hold below it. Workability refers to the cargo and not cranes/derricks that serve the hatch in question. Largest quantity in one hold/Daily rate per hatch x Number of hatches serving that hold =Days; A hatch that is capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as two hatches.
PERILS OF THE SEA  Fortuitous accidents or casualties, peculiar to transportation on a navigable water, such as stranding, sinking, collision of the vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.
PERSONAL FLOATATION DEVICE  Approved floats meant as life preservers and carried on board American ships.
PHYTOSANITARY INSPECTION CERTIFICATE  A certificate, issued by the US Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations for foreign countries, indicating that a US shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases.
PICKUP The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform.
PIER The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of  loading and unloading cargo.
PIER-TO-HOUSE A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee’s facility.
PIER TO PIER Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination.
PIGGYBACK A rail transport mode where a loaded truck trailer is shipped on a rail flatcar.
PILFERAGE  The theft of part of the contents of a shipping package.
PILOT  A person who is qualified to assist the master of a ship to navigate when entering or leaving a port. In most ports pilotage is compulsory.
PILOT HOUSE  The enclosed space on the navigating bridge from which a ship is controlled when under way.
PILOTAGE Pilotage refers to navigational support extended to ships for entering and exiting the ports from the point of anchorage to the their allocated berths.  It involves provisions for supply of pilotage vessels and pilots, who safely navigate the ships the port area,
PILOTAGE DUES A fee payable by the owner or operator of a ship for the services of a pilot. This fee is normally based on the ship's tonnage.
PILOTAGE FEE Pilotage fee refers to the charges levied by the port authorities towards providing the pilotage assistance to ships services and pilot vessels. Under Indian port laws, provision for pilotage services by the port trust organizations are compulsory.
PLIMSOLL MARK A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability.
POLITICAL RISK  In export financing the risk of loss due to such causes as currency inconvertibility, government action preventing entry of goods, expropriation or confiscation, war, etc.
POLLUTION  Legal liability of shipowner for clean-up costs and damages caused by pollution. Special extension for tanker owners to cover their liabilities under TOVALOP Agreement. Most topically, the United States Oil Pollution Liability legislation in 1990 will need to be covered but in may cases the lack of a limit may lead to the cover being far too expensive.
POOLING The sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference. Pooling arrangements do not exist in all conferences.
PORT  Means an area within which ships are loaded with or discharged of cargo, and includes the usual place where ships wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn, no matter the distance from that area.
PORT / PORTSIDE  The left side of a vessel when viewed forward. (The right side is called starboard).
PORT AUTHORITY Port authority refers to the designed statutory / legal agency, empowered by the government, which is responsible for administering all developmental and operational activities in a port.
PORT CHARTERES A voyage charter is a contract to carry goods from a loading port or a range of ports to an agreed destination. When the vessel arrival at the agreed destination various events take place, for example the Notice or Readines is given by the master of the agents and this can trigger off the commencement of laytime. When the agreed destination is a named port the ship is treated as an "arrived ship" when it arrives in a particular area in shich there is a berth at which the ship will load and /or discharge cargo.
PORT DEVELOPER Port developer is an agency that takes up the development of various port related assets and facilities.
PORT FACILITY SECURITY OFFICER Is the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision, and maintenance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers.
PORT FACILITY SECURITY PLAN Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s  stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident.
PORT FORMALITIES AND LAYTIME When a ship "arrives" at the contractual destinaiton before it can be actually ready and before the Notice of Radiness is gives and accept, thus triggering the commencement of the laytime, it must be physically and legally rady. Once aspect of legal readiness is related to compliance with all port formalities.
PORT OF CALL Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic.
PORT OF DISCHARGE  Port where vessel is off loaded and cargo discharges.
PORT OF ENTRY Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country.
PORT OF EXIT Port where cargo is loaded and leaves a country.
PORT OF LOADING  Port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel lashed and stowed
PORT OF REFUGE A port of refuge is a port at which general average repairs and expenses are incurred and is not restricted to a port to which a ship may call for stress of weather. The phrase can also apply to a port in which the vessel calls for loading, discharging or bunkering or bunkering if general average is declared.
PORT SIDE  the left hand side of a ship facing the front or forward end. The port side of a ship during darkness is indicated by a red light. Was previously known as the larboard side but this created confusion with starboard and was changed.
PORT SECURITY It is the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain.  It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and inspection of the cargo moving through the ports, and maritime security.
PORT STATE CONTROL  The inspection of foreign ships in national ports for the purpose of verifying that the condition of a ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international conventions and that the vessel is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international law. 
POST-PANAMAX VESSEL  A ship that is too large, particularly in the width or beam for the Panama Canal
POWER OF ATTOMAY  A document that authorizes a customs broker to sign all customs documents on behalf of an importer.
PRATIQUE  License or permission to use a port
PRE-BERTHING TIME A measure of time starting from the point of anchoring of a ship in the high seas to its final berthing in a seaport.
PREPAID (PPD) Freight charges paid by the consigner (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the carrier.
PREPAID FREIGHT Freight paid by the shipper to the carrier when merchandise is tendered for shipment that is not refundable if the merchandise does not arrive at the intended destination. 
PRESENT POSITION The line in the charterparty starting the vessel's present position (and possibly the "Expected rady to load" date) is of importance to the charterer in order that he can assess the vessel's future readiness to receive tha cargo. Accordingly, he will be able to make the necessary arrangements for handling the cargo.
PRO FORMA INVOICE  An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, etc.)
PRO RATA A Latin term meaning “In proportion.”
PRO RATA FREIGHT Without express or impress or implied agreement, full freight is payable only on delivery of the cargo. If the ship and/or the cargo is lost freight does not become payable. However, a clause in a charterparty may provide for part (or all) of the freight to be prepaid to a situation use of the phrase "pro-rata freight".
PRODUCTS TANKER  A tanker designed to carry refined petroleum products in bulk.
PROJECT CARGO The materials and equipment to assemble a special project overseas, such as a factory or highway.
PROMPT SHIP  Vessel that can be ready to load at short notice, say within a few delay.
PROPANE CARRIER  A ship designed to carry propane in liquid form. The propane is carried in tanks within the holds; it remains in liquid form by means of pressure and refrigeration. Such ships are also suitable for the carriage of butane.PSV (Platform Supply Vessel) - Carries supplies to drilling units or installations during field development or production.
PROTEST A letter of protest or note of protest or note of protest may be given by the master to various parties such a shippers, charterers, or stevedores, who engage in activities which are unacceptable to the master.
PUMPING CLAUSE. In a tanker charterparty the description of the vessel will contain a clause specifying the capability of the vessel to pump the cargo for which the vessel is chartered. For example, in TANKERVOY 87 the owners undertake that, at the date of the charterparty.
PUMPMAN  A rating that tends to the pumps of an oil tanker. 
PURCHASE ORDER  A document created by a buyer to officially request a product or service from a seller. It contains, among other things, the name and address of the buyer, the ship-to address, the quantity, product code [and expected price], requested ship or receipt date, sales and shipping terms, and other appropriate information. 
PURSER A ship's officer who is in charge of accounts, especially on a passenger ship. Nowadays referred to as the Hotel Manager of most cruise ships.
QUALITY ASSURANCE  (QA) The process of verifying or determining whether products or services meet or exceed customer expectations.  This process considers design, development, production, and service.
QUALITY CONTROL  (QC) The management function that attempts to ensure that the foods or services manufactured or purchased meet the product or service specifications.
QUARANTINE A restraint placed on an operation to protect the public against health hazard.  A ship may be quarantined so that it cannot leave a protected point.  During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted.
QUARTERS  Accommodation on a ship, i.e. crew quarters.
QUAY A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored see also Pier and Dock
A wedge-shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels against movement.
The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time.
RAIL WAYBILL  The bill of lading issued by rail carriers to their customers
RAILHEAD  End of the railroad line or point in the area of operations at which cargo is loaded and unloaded.
RAILYARD  A rail terminal at which occur traditional railroad activities for sorting and redistribution of railcars and cargo.
RATE BASIS POINT  The major shipping point in a local area; carriers consider all points in the local area to be the rate basis point
RE-CAP TELEX This expression is an abbrevation for a "re-capitulation" message, where all the points raised during the negotiations that have been completed before the fixing of a ship on charter are gone over and summarised again.
REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL or ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE  The charterer undertakes that when the ship arrives at the port there will be a loading/discharging berth for her to which she can proceed without delay.
READINESS A Notice of "Readiness" is the trigger that commences the counting of laytime. "Readiness" means that the vessel must be both physically and legally rady for cargo to be loaded into or discharged from it that is, "ready in all respects" If the vessel is not so ready at the time that the notice is given, the Notice or Readiness will not be "good" notice and laytime amy not be triggered.
READY BERTH CLAUSE In a "berth charter" it is important to include a stipulation in a charterparty to the effect that the Notice of Readiness can be tendered (and laydays will begin to count) as soon as the vessel has arrived at the port of loading or discharge "whether in berth or not". It can happen in practice that a vessel for which no berth is available immediately after arrival is ordered by the port authorities to anchor ourside the official port limits awaiting berth, in which case difficulties may arise if the charterer decides that the vessel is not an "arrived ship" and for this rason is prevented from tendering notice of readiness. 
REBATE An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price.  
RECONSIGNMENT Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit.  Diversion has substantially the same meaning.
RECOURSE A right claim against the guarantors of a loan or draft or bill of exchange.
REEFER  A container with a self-contained refrigeration unit, used for the transportation of perishable cargo. 
REEFER BOX  An insulated shipping container designed to carry cargoes requiring temperature control. It is fitted with a refrigeration unit, which is connected to the ship's electrical power supply.
REGISTERED TONNAGE This is Gross tonnage less "Deductions" less "Allowance for Propelling Machinery Space".
RELAY To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager.
RELET CLAUSE In the MULTIFORM voyage charterparty the Relet clause gives the option of sub-chartering the ship to others. However, the original charterers remain reponsible to the owners under the "head charter".
RESERVE BUOYANCY The submerged part of a vessel provides it with buoyancy. The volume of the enclosed space above the waterline is the reserve. They provide additional buoyancy as weight are loaded to immerse the vessel deeper. Reserve buoyancy determines the depth to which the ship can be loaded and also the assignment of loadlines and freeboards.
RETURN CARGO  A cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port or area where her previous cargo was loaded
REVENUE TONNE  Revenue Tonne (i.e. 1.0 metric Tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied by the freight rate.
REVERSIBLE LAYTIME  An option given to the charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and discharging. When the option is exercised the effect is the same as a total time being specified to cover both operations. Until the total time expires, no demurrage becomes payable. Opposite of normal or non-reversible lay time. (See “days all purposes”).
RIDER CLAUSES  A set of additional clauses which substitute or supplement the clauses in the original standard C/P form. If a rider clause contradicts a printed clause the rider clause prevails.
RITES Rail India Technical Services is a point of anchoring and e4xecution organization that mainly takes up projects in the railway and other transport infrastructure areas.
RIVERINE PORT Riverine port is one that is located along the river, close to a point of its confluence with the sea.
ROLLING CARGO Cargo which is on wheels, such as truck or trailers, and which can be driven or towed on to a ship. 
RORO (ROLL ON-ROLL OFF) Direct drive on/drive off wheeled vehicles on specially-designed ocean-going vessels.
RO-RO SHIP  Freight ship or ferry with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access. Fully loaded trucks or trailers carrying containers are accommodated on the deck. 
ROTATION NUMBER This is given to a ship by port authorities, especially by Customs authorities, to indicate the ship's turn to berth for loading and/or discharging. It is based on the ship's arrival and reporting by the master of agent to the port authorities. In chartering, the term would then be related to the clearance of the ship and whether the ship can give a Notice of Readiness
ROUND VOYAGE  Voyage involving two legs, the second of which brings the ship back to the first port.
RUBBER-TIRED GANTRY (RTG) Traveling crane used for the movement and positioning of containers in a container field. RTG's may also be used for loading and unloading containers from rail cars.
RUNNING DAYS / CONSECUTIVE DAYS  Days which follow one immediately after the other. They are continuous. A working day may exclude Sundays and holidays. But a running day does not exclude any day unless provided in the C/P.
SAFE BERTH This is a description of the specific place the charterer can send the ship for loading and/or discharging. It is commonly abbreviation to "S.B." for example, a fixture may be for the ship to load at "1/2 s.b. 1 safe port…". A safe berth is a berth which the ship can reach, remain at and depart from without being exposed to danger which cannot be avoid by good navigation and seamanship. Some abnormal, unforeseeable occurrence may remove any liability for the charterer if the vessel is harmed. Otherwise charterer is responsible to order teh ship a safe berth.
SAFE PORT  A port which, during the relevant period of time, the ship can reach, enter, remain at and depart without being exposed to danger.
SAFE WORKING LOAD  Maximum load which can safely be carried by a crane or a derrick.
SAFETY STOCK   The inventory a company holds beyond normal needs as a buffer against delays in receipt of orders or changes in customer buying patterns. 
SALE & PURCHASE BROKER  Person who negotiates the terms for the sale of a ship on behalf of the buyer or seller.
SALT WATER ARRIVAL DRAFT  Vessel’s draft on arrival in salt water where the density of water is 1025 kg per cbm.
SALVAGE The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel, or the recovery of the vessel herself.
SALVAGE COSTS This expression includes all exprenses properly incurred by the salvor in the performance of the salvage services.
SATELLITE PORT Satellite port refers to the development of a port location that is in close proximity to an existing nearby major ports.
SATURDAYS In some ports Saturdays may be days of rest and treated as holidays. They will then be excluded from "laytime". Otherwise, and unless the charterparty expresslky provides (as the "Baltimore From C" charterparty does), Saturdays are like ordinary working days. If cargo work is carried out, those who are involved in these operations may have to be paid at higher rates of pay ("penalty rates) or at "overtime rates". This does not prevent Saturday from being a "working day", nor does a customary practice or not working on Saturdays.
SAVAGE  Action taken to save a ship or her cargo from loss or damage at sea. Property saved from loss or damage at sea.
SBM s Single Bouy Mooring (SBM) is a floating structure that is erected in the high seas. It features a rotatable upper platform with inlet / out let for receiving of crude oil cargo and other liquid cargoes, from large tanker vessels, which in turn are connected by pipelines point.  Bulk of the crude oil handling on west coast of India is currently done through such SBM facilities off the ports of Kandla and Sikka, respectively managed by Reliance and Indian Oil Corporation.
SCALE RATES  Rates set by organizations which publish standard C/Ps. The scale rates contain daily loading rates as well as demurrage rates. Applicable to bulk cargoes like coal, ores, etc., from specific countries.
SEA PROTEST In case of damage to a vessel or her cargo or when she has encountered exceptionally heavy weather during the voyage which may have caused damage, the master will register a protest ("note a protest") before the competent authorities, e.g. notary public or Counsul, Such a protest may be extended or completed within a certain limit of time after arrival.
SEA TRIALS  A series of trials conducted by the builders during which the owner's representatives on board act in a consulting and checking capacity to determine if the vessel has met the specifications
SEAFREIGHT  Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover any haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only.
Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or container doors. Seals are numbered for recording purposes. A seal is generally affixed after Customs exams have been completed, and prior to the container being loaded on the first conveyance.
SEASONAL PORTS Ports which are only accessible to ocean shipping during part of the year, such as ports in the St. Lawrence in the White Sea, are called seasonal ports. Because of ice, these ports and their approaches are closed for navigation between December and spring.
SEAWORTHINESS The fitness of a vessel for its intended use.
SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE  A certificate issued by a classification society surveyor to allow a vessel to proceed after she has met with a mishap that may have affected its seaworthiness. It is frequently issued to enable a vessel to proceed, after temporary repairs have been effected, to another port where permanent repairs are then carried out. 
SEAWORTHINESS OBLIGATIONS Under a contract to cary goods by sea, a shipowner has the obligation to provide a seaworthy ship. Under the common law this implied obligation is very strict ("absolute") and can exist not only at the time the charter I smade and commences but also the service provide by the owner.
SEGREGATED BALLAST TANK  Tank which is used for water ballast only.
SELF-GEARED SHIP  Any ship with its own gear, or crane/s for loading and discharging shipping cargo including containers, thus enabling the ship to serve ports which do not have suitable lifting equipment. 
SELF-SUSTAINING  Vessel has its own cranes and equipment mounted on board for loading/unloading. Used in ports where shore cranes and equipment are lacking.
SELF-TRIMMING SHIP  Ship whose holds are shaped in such a way that a bulk cargo loaded into her will level itself.
SEMISUBMERSIBLE A ship able to submerge part of itself to load or discharge cargo that can be floated on or off. Usually semi submersible ships are heavy-duty vessels. 
SERVICE  The defined, regular pattern of calls made by a carrier in the pick up and discharge of cargo. 
SERVICE CONTRACT  A contract between a shipper and an ocean carrier or conference, in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a minimum quantity of cargo over a fixed time period. The ocean carrier or conference also commits to a rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level, such as space, transit item, port rotation, or other features. 
SETHUSAMUDRAM CANAL Sethusamudram Canal refers to the proposed canal connecting Gulf of Manner with Palk Bay, which will enable ships from Western India ports to directly call on the Tuticorin port, without having to circumnavigate Sri Lanka, as is the current requirement.  The available depth  in this region is very shallow and is merely about 11 feet.
SETS OF BILL OF LADING Bill of lading are requested by shippers in a set usually of three "originals", although in some countries many more "original" sets may be required for different reasons, some commercial, some regulatory. The practice to be issued with a set of three original bills is very old.
SETTLING TANKS Motarships are fitted with settling tanks. Fuel oil may be contaminated with water, which settles to the bottom of the tank and can be drained. This process is accelarated by heating the fuel oil by stream heating coils. Two tanks are usually fitted.
SEZ s Special Economic Zones ((SEZ) is a specially demarcated area when the industries are exclusively set up for purposes of export and are exempted from the ambit of custom and taxation laws.
SHEDDAGE  Regardless of the length of stay, a vessel is charged a one-time fee for use of shed space and/or marginal (waterside) rail track space. The charge is based on the length of a vessel.
SHEER The sheer of a vessel is the longitudinal curvature of the deck from the lowest point on deck amidships. The everage sheer of a general cargo vessel is about 1 per cent of the ship's length. The sheer may increase the vessel's reserve buoyance. Sheer features in the assignment of load lines.
SHEX and SHINC These abbreviations apply to the manner in which laytime is calculated and accounted for. The first means "Sundays nad Holidays excepted". This is one of the exceptions to laytime. The second means "Sundays and Holidays included" in the laytime allowed to the charterer. This is less advantageous to him than the first.
SHIFTING  Time spent shifting between berths is generally taken to be for owner’s account, provided it has been agreed that loading/discharging is at more than one berth. Also time spent in shifting from the waiting place (anchorage) to the first cargo berth is generally not to count as lay time.
SHIP A vessel of considerable size for deep-water navigation. A sailing vessel having three or more square-rigged  masts.
SHIP'S ARTICLES  A written agreement between the master of a ship and the crew concerning their employment. It includes rates of pay and capacity of each crewman, the date of commencement of the voyage and its duration.
SHIP'S STABILITY  The seaworthiness of a ship regarding the centrifugal force which enables her to remain upright.
SHIP’S TACKLE All rigging cranes, etc, utilized on a ship to load or unload cargo.
SHIP AGENT A liner company or tramp ship operator representative who facilitates ship arrival, clearance, loading and unloading, and fee payment while at a specific port. 
SHIP BROKER  A firm that serves as a go-between for the tramp ship owner and the chartering consignor or consignee. 
SHIP CHANDLER An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.
SHIP LOAD The amount of cargo a ship carriers or is able to carry.
SHIP SECURITY OFFICER Is the person on board the vessel, accountable to the master, designated by the Company responsible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan and for the liaison with the company security officer and the port facility security officers.
SHIP  SECURITY PLAN Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship and designed to protect  persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship’s stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident.
SHIPMENT The tender of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.
SHIPPER A non-profit entity that represents the interests of a number of shippers.  The main focus of shippers associations is to pool the cargo volumes of members to leverage the most favorable service contract rate levels.
SHIPPER'S AGENT  A firm that primarily matches up small shipments, especially single-traffic piggyback loads, to permit shippers to use twin-trailer piggyback rates
SHIPPERS'S ASSOCIATIONS This is a group of shippers that consolitates of distributes freight on a non-prefit basis for the members of the group in order to secure to secure volume rates or service contract (U.S. Shipping act 1984).
SHIPPER’S EXPORT DECLARATION  A form required for all shipments by the US Treasury Department and prepared by the shipper, indicating the value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment.
SHIPPER’S LOAD AND COUNT  Note on bill of lading indication that the contents of a container were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verified by the Steamship Company.
SHIPPING ORDER Shipper’s instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.
SHOAL  an area of the sea that is shallow, especially at low tide. 
SHORE A prop or support placed against or beneath anything to prevent sinking or sagging.
SHORT-SHIPPED  Cargo manifested but not loaded.
SHORT FROM OF BILL OF  LADING These bills of lading that s presenting companies or agents, that is, carriers, and indicate that some or all the terms and conditions of the document which is evidence of the contract fo carriage can be found in another document, the "long form of bill of lading". This latter may be obtainable on request of can be inspected at the office of the carrier or agent.
SHORT TON A short ton equals 2,000. Lifting capacity and cargo measurements are designated in short tons.
SIGHT DRAFT A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.
SIGNED UNDER PROTEST If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bill of lading, the master may sign the bills fo lading under protest. The words "signed under protest" affect the master's signature so that it cannot be produced as evidence
SISTER SHIPS  Ships built on the same design.
SKEG  A projection similar to a keel at the stern of a vessel that offers protection to the rudder and propeller in the event of the vessel going aground in reverse. 
SKIDS  Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.
SKIPPER  the captain of a ship. 
SLEEPERS Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that ate not clearly identified on any internally generated reports.
SLING A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to / from a vessel.
SLOP TANK  A tank in a tanker into which slops are pumped. These represent a residue of the ship's cargo of oil together with the water used to clean the cargo tanks. They are left to separate out in the slop tank.
SPECIAL POLICY OF INSURANCE  Document issued on behalf of the Underwriter stating the terms and conditions of the marine insurance. Issued when evidence of insurance is required, as by the bank issuing the Letter of Credit.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY  Ratio of the weight of a liquid to its cubic capacity. Also called “relative density”. Water has SG of 1.00 (1 cubic metre of water weighs 1 tonne).
SPIDERING  Is the internal strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the tanks becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel or wood crossbeams giving a _spider_ appearance.
SPILT B / L One of two or more B / L’s which have been split from a single  B / L.
SPOT  A vessel which can commence loading immediately after the charter has been fixed. Also used for cargo which is available for immediate loading.
SPOT VOYAGE  A charter for a particular vessel to move a single cargo between specified loading port(s) and discharge port(s) in the immediate future. Contract rate ("spot" rate) covers total operating expenses, i.e., bunkers, port charges, canal tolls, crew's wages and food, insurance and repairs. Cargo owner absorbs, in addition, any expenses specifically levied against the cargo. 
SPREADER A piece of equipment to lift containers by their corner castings.
SS OR SUBSTITUTE  Such a condition in a C/P entitles the owner to replace the original vessel by another ship, of same cargo capacity including class and suitability of laycan, for the fulfillment of the charter.
SSW This is an abbrevation for "Summer Salt Water" and refers to the draught of the ship when it is load to its summer loading in salt water, that in the open sea. The summer draught is the maximum draught to which the ship can be loaded depending or the "freeboards" and "loadlines" assigned to it by the assigning authorities.
STABILITY  It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.
Containers stowed more than one high and in a orderly way in one place in a Container Yard, CFS, depot, or on a vessel. 
STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION (SITC)  A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade.
STARBOARD  The right side of a ship when looking forward. (By remembering that port and left both have four letters, it is easier to remember which is port and which is starboard).
STATE BILL OF LADING This is generally a bill of lading that is presented ot the bank or delivered to the consignee after the cargo reaches its destination. The term may also be used for a bull of lading that is produced to a bank for payment on documents but which has been produced after the expiry date of the credit. Yet another use of the phrase is where the bill of lading is issued well after the loading of the cargo referred to in the bill has been loaded.
STATE MARITIME BOARDS State Maritime Boards (SMB s) are modal regulatory and development of various minor and intermediate ports, including captive ports forming part of the State’s coastline.
STATEMENT OF FACTS  Statement prepared by an agent showing dates and times of arrival; commencement and completion of loading and discharging; quantity loaded/discharged daily; hours worked/stopped with reasons for break-down of equipments, etc.
STATEROOMS  private cabins in a ship. 
STAMSHIP AGENT  A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting in behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his principals.
STEAMSHIP  Today, ships that transport cargo overseas are powered by diesel fuel instead of steam. Many people still use the term "steamship," but the more modern term for the service is "ocean carrier" and for the ship itself, "motor vessel."
STEAMSHIP LINE  Company is usually composed of the following departments; vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates and sales. the company can maintain its own in country U.S. offices to handle regional sales, operations and/or other matters or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing same. Some lines have liner offices in several regions and have appointed agents in others.
STERN The end of a vessel. Opposite of bow.
STERNWAY  The reverse movement of a vessel.
STEVEDORE Individual or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship.
STORE A general term for provisions, materials and supplies used aboard ship for the maintenance of the crew, and for the navigation, propulsion and upkeep of the vessel and its equipment. 
STOW The placing and securing of cargo or containers on a vessel or on an aircraft. This also includes placing and securing cargo in a container.
STOWAGE  The placing of goods in a ship in such a way as to ensure the safety and stability of the ship not only on a sea or ocean passage but also in between ports when parts of the cargo have been loaded or discharged. 
STOWAGE FACTOR  The space occupied by a ton (or tonne) of a commodity in a ship’s hold expressed in cubic feet to the ton or cubic meters to the tonne Or Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo.
STRADDLE CARRIER Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.
STRAIGHT BILL OF LADING  A non-negotiable bill of lading in which the goods are consigned directly to a named consignee.
STRAIGHT BILL OF LADING A non-negotiable bill of lading which states a  specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered.
STRANDING The running of a ship on shore on a beach.
STRIKES  Some C/Ps state that delays due to strikes are not to count as lay time.
STRIPPING The process of removing cargo from a container
STUFFING Putting cargo into a container.
SUB-CHARTER This is a charter in a "chain" of charters where one party, the "head charterer" uses the provisions of a "sub-let" or "relet" clause to charter the ship to another charterer. The head charterer remains responsible for fulfillment of the contract between him and the owner. In a sub-charter situation, the original charterer can appear to the sub-charterer to be the "owner" and is referred to as the "disponent owner".
SUB-LETTING It is customary to stipulate in a time or voyage charterparty that charterers have the right of sub-letting the whole or part of the vessel on the understanding, however, that they ramain responsible to the shipowners for the due fulfillment of the original charterparty.
SUBJECT APPROVAL OF RELEVANT AUTHORITY This affect the enforcebility of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.
SUBJECT DETAILS This is one area of the law where American practice is very different from English practice and an area where considerable difficulty and complexiry arise. Therefore some analysis will be offered.
SUBJECT FINANCING This qualification can be used by a charterer to indicate that he is attemting to finance a transportation for wich he needs a ship, for example, he wishes to purchase a quantity of bulk cargo such a sugar, and needs a ship to transport it. It can also be used by a purchaser of a ship before confirming that he can complete the purchase.
SUBJECT MANAGERS' APPROVAL For the shipowner this can be a somewhat troublesome qualification because it indicates that the charterer's negotiator has to refer all the issues to a third party to make a final decision. The uncertainty for the owner is considerable. A similar qualification used by a charterer is "subject to Board's approval" where the Board of Directors of the company which wants to charter the vessel has to decide and it can take considerable time before the Board meets. When a shipbroker uses these in an offer, it could also indicate that perhaps he does not have his principals' authority to negotiate
SUBJECT OPEN "The restriction 'subject open' or subject unfixed' can only apply when a vessel or a cargo is already under offer, once only for a limited time, and the 'subject open' offer must be made with the same time limit. No extension can be granted, no. further negotiation can take place until the time limit has expired or until both offers have been answered.
SUBJECT RECEIVERS' APPROVAL This is an unusual restriction and can make the charter dependent on the cargo receiver's approval of the ship in the discharging port. The ship can fail to obtain the receivers's unconditional approval for many reasons, including the flag of registry and the cargo hadling equipment. It can take quit a long time to obtain the receiver's approval at the time of negotiating a fixture.
SUBJECT SHIPPERS' APPROVAL This is also a "condition precedent" which can cause the fixture to fail to be binding if the shippers do not accept the ship to load the cargo. Again, also like the previous restriction, this can required a third party's approval before a charter between the owner and the charterer becomes binding.
SUBJECT STEM  Implies that the vessel is fixed subject to the cargo quantity being available in the laydays agreed upon.
SUBJECT TO DRYDOCKING This would possible be used by a charterer in the negotiations for a time 
SUBJECT TO LICENCE BEING GRANTED This term is used in negotiations as regards the chartering of a vessel at a time when owners are not free to commit their vessel for a certain employment without having obtained the approval of competent authorities. Consequently, a charterparty issued under such condition is not effective until such licence has been definitely granted.
SUBJECT TO SIGNING CHARTERPARTY This expression is similar to "subject to contract". The formal document has not been signed (or "executed") and the entire contract and its terms are held in abeyance until the signing.
SUBJECT TO STRIKE AND LOCKOUT CLAUSE In a similar manner to "subject to drydocking clause", this qualification indicates are in agreement to all the terms provided one party accepts the wording of a clause setting out the rights and responsibilities of the parties should the event mentioned take place. Indeed, there are many clauses in a charterparty, some printed and some as "Rider clauses", which may be given importance during the negotiations, for example, the ITF and the "boycott clause" in the case fo pollux v. Louis Dreyfus, 1978. Clauses referring to specific situations can either be main terms or "details"
SUBJECTS  Means that the acceptance of the terms offered by the other side is “conditional” and hence a conditional acceptance is not an agreement.
SUBROGATION  The operation by which the insurance company (on payment of a claim) assumes all of the assured’s rights to recovery from any third parties; substitution of one creditor for another.
SUBSIDIES A subsidy is a financial assistance for shipping. There are many types of subsides. Their main purpose is to help develop shipping activities or to assist a national fleet in the face of foreign competition. Subsidies can be long-term or permanent or used only when shipowners are faced with financial fiscal difficulties. Subsidies can be directly paid to shipowners or indirectly assist the shipping industry.
SUEZMAX  bulk carriers of about 150,000 tonnes dwt with a draft of 53’ which can transit the Suez Canal fully laden.
SUNDAYS & HOLIDAYS EXDEPTED / INCLUDED  Under this expression Sundays and holidays will not count as lay time (excepted) /will count as lay time (included).
SUPERCARGO  A person on board representing the charterer who supervises cargo operations. Owners feed the supercargo at a nominal rate but provide free of charge accommodation.
SUPPLY CHAIN A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw materials to the manufactures through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measurable components.  “Just in Time” is a typical value-added example of supply chain management.
SURCHARGE An extra or additional charge.
SURVEYOR  A marine specialist who examines damaged property and determines the cause, nature, and extent of damage and methods of repair and/or replacement. He is not an adjuster, and all his actions are without prejudice to policy terms and conditions.
SUSPENSION OF LAYTIME The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuosly.
SWAD (SALD WATER ARRIVAL DRAUGHT) This is a description of a vessel's draught in salt water when when it arrives at a port where the water density is that of salt water, that is 1025 kolograms per cubic metre. This expression differs from "Fresh water arrival draught" (FWAD) and an intermediate warter density draught, "brackish water arrival draugh" (BWAD). In a charterparty the description of the vessel usually related to its draught in salt water unless it is to trade in water where the desity js other that of salt water.
TALLY Upon delivery of cargo, the number of packages is checked by tally clerks. The information on tally clerks' sheets is inserted on the mate's receipts and bills of lading.
TAMP Tariff Authority for Major Port (TAMP) is a tariff regulating authority created under the Major Port Trust Act 1963 to determine the incidence of various port related dues and maintain parity of rates between the public ports and new privately managed terminals in a port.
TANK BARGES  Used for transporting bulk liquids, such as petroleum, chemicals, molasses, vegetable oils and liquefied gases
TANK FARMS Tank farms are essentially shore based storage facilities for liquid cargo and are often connected by pipeline through which the stored liquid cargo is finally evacuated to actual user sites like refineries.
TARE WEIGHT  The weight of a container and packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains.
TARIFF   It is the duty levied on goods transported from one customs area to another, or on imported products.
TARPAULIN   Waterproof fabric used for covering the top of an open top container.
TAXATION AND CHARTERING Taxation on shipping has many forms and the charterparty should make it clear which party bears the responsibility of paying the taxes. The nature of the taxes also varies, for example, from freight tax to "Value Added Tax" (VAT). The latter is a tax imposed by a government on the services offered by shipping personnel in its ports. For example, in 1989, Taiwan imposed a 5 per cent local VAT on agency fees and on commissions for vessels engaged in discharging in taiwanese ports. Levies impsed by countries, such as for port dues and for maintenance of lights nad navigational aids ('light dues") are also forms of taxation.
TBN To Be Nominated (when the name of a ship still unknown)
TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT  Management of the maintenance, crewing and insurance of the ship.
TEN PERCENT BAGS FOR SAFE STOWAGE  Some C/Ps stipulate that if a charterer loads in bulk, e.g., grain, 10% of the cargo must be loaded in bags to bring the ship down to her marks.
TENDER The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars or containers for loading or unloading.
TENOR  The term fixed for payment of a draft.
TEMINAL An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.
TERMINAL CHARGE A charge made for a service performed in a carrier’s terminal area.
TERMINAL OPERATOR  The place where cargo is handled is called a terminal (or a wharf).
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED CARGO  It is a term used for any cargo, which requires carriage under controlled temperature. 
TERMS OF SALE  The invoice is the sales contract between buyer and seller and indicates the Terms of Sale.
TERRITORIAL WATERS  That portion of the sea up to a limited instance which is immediately adjacent to the shores of any country and over which the sovereignty and exclusive jurisdiction of that country extend. South Africa's territorial waters extend for 200 n.miles offshore.
THE BILL OF LADING AS EVIDENCE OF THE CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE If the shipper is also the charterer of the vessel, the terms and conditions of the contract of carriage or hire of the vessel contained in the physical document which is the "charterparty". There is no need for the physical document of the bill of lading to be the contract between the charterer and shipowner, nor even the evidence of the contract of carriage.
THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS (3PL) A company that provides logistics services to other companies for some or all of their  logistics needs.  It typically includes warehousing and transportation services.  Most  3PL’s also have freight forwarding licenses.
THROUGH BILL OF LADING  A single bill of lading converting both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment. An air waybill is essentially a through bill of lading used for air shipments. However, ocean shipments usually require two separate documents – an inland B/L for domestic carriage and an ocean B/L for international carriage. Through bills of lading are insufficient for ocean shipments.
TIDAL PORT Tidal ports are those ports, whose available draft conditions both at the port entrance and at berths are dependent on tidal conditions.  Ships at such ports generally enter and leave such ports only in high  tide conditions, as available depth under the low tide conditions are not adequate to the movement of ships.
TIMBER LOAD LINES Special timber load lines can be used only when a ship carrying a cargo of timber on deck complies with the Load Line Rules. 
TIME BAR  Time after which legal claims will not be entertained 
TIME CHARTER  Employment of a vessel for a specific period of time, say, 2 months. The charterer has no possession or control of the ship. The ship-owner receives “hire” payments from the charterer, usually so-much per day or pro-rata paid semi-monthly or monthly in advance. Also called “period charter”.
TIME LOST WAITING FOR BERTH TO COUNT AS LOADING / DISCHARDING TIME or AS LAYTIME  If the main reason why NOR can not be given is that there is no loading/discharging berth available to the ship the lay time will commence to run when the ship starts to wait for a berth and will continue to run, unless previously exhausted, until the ship stops waiting. The lay time exceptions apply to the waiting time as if the ship were at the loading/discharging berth provided the ship is not already on demurrage. When the waiting time ends time commences to count and restarts when the ship reaches the loading/discharging berth subject to say notice time if provided for in the C/P, unless the ship is by then on demurrage.
TIME POLICY This is contract to insure the subject matter for a definite period of time, e.g. a ship insured for 12 months commercing 12 March 1001.
TIME SHEET  In order to calculate the time used for loading or discharging a time sheet is drawn up from the statement of facts to determine if any demurrage/dispatch in payable.
TIR CARNET Transport International Routier Carnet Which Used to Enable Goods to Travel Sealed Through Frontiers With Minimum Customs Interference. 
TON  Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be weight ton or a measurement ton.
TON-DEADWEIGHT  Indicates the carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions and passengers which a vessel can carry.
TON-DISPLACEMENT  The weight of the volume of water which the fully loaded ship displaces.
TON MILE  A measurement used in the economics of transportation to designate one ton being moved one mile. This is useful to the shipper because it includes the distance to move a commodity in the calculation.
TON PER INCH / CENTIMETRE  The weight which must be added to, or taken from, a ship in order to change its mean draft by one inch or one centimeter.
TONNAGE  Gross Tonnage – Total internal carrying capacity of a vessel expressed in measurement tons (one measurement ton = 100 cu. Ft.).
TONNAGE MARKS These are marks which are painted on the sides of some ships whose tonnages is measured as if the space between the upper deck and the second deck from above is not included in the tonnage. The tonnage tha these ships have is called either "modified" or "alternative" tonnage.
TOP-OFF  To fill a ship which is already partly loaded with cargo.
TOPLIFT A piece of equipment similar to a forklift that lifts from above rather than below. Used to handle containers in the storage yard to and from storage stacks, trucks and railcars.
TOTAL COMMISSION  Total of (a) address commission [adcom] to charterer plus (b) brokerage to shipbroker.
TOTAL STAY AT BERTH Total Stay at Berth refers to the total time duration of stay of a ship at berth from the time of docking of the ship at the allocated berth to its final departure.
TOW When one or more vessels are being towed; when a tug is towing (hauling) one or more floating objects.
TOWAGE The charge made for towing a vessel.
TOWAGE CHARGES Towage  charges pertains to towage services provided by the port authority.
TOWBOAT A snub-nosed boat with push knees used for pushing barges. A small towboat (called a push boat) may push one or two barges around the harbor. A large towboat is used to push from 5 to 40 barges in a tow is called a line boat. From the Port of New Orleans, line boats deliver cargo to Mid-America via the 14,500-mile waterway system flowing through the Crescent City
THIRD FREEDOM RIGHT  Where cargo is carried by an airline, from the country in which it is based, to a foreign country
THIRD-PARTY WAREHOUSING  The act of using a contractor to provide warehousing services, and the name of the industry which is involved in providing contract warehousing operations for hire.
THROUGH RATE The charge for moving a  container through a container yard off or onto a ship.
TRACING  Determining a shipment's location during the course of a move. 
TRACKING   A carrier's system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origins to destinations
TRADE ACCEPTANCE A time or a date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawer) for payment at maturity.
TRADING LIMITS  Limits or restrictions imposed by the ship-owner on a time charterer’s freedom to nominate ports to ensure that a list of places considered unsafe is excluded. Usually followed by the words “within Institute Warranty Limits”.
TRAFFIC Persons and property carried by transport lines.
TRAILER The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination.
TRAMP A tramp is a vessel that does not operate along a definite route on a fixed schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.
TRAMP LINE An ocean carrier company operating vessels not on regular runs or schedules.  They call at any port where cargo may be available.
TRANSHIP To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, from on ship to another.
TRANSIT PORT  When the majority of cargoes moving through a port aren’t coming from or destined for the local market, the port is called a transit (or through) port.
TRANSIT SHED   The shed on a wharf is designed to protect cargoes from weather damage and is used only for short-term storage. Warehouses operated by private firms house goods for longer periods
TRANSIT SHIPMENT  A term designating a shipment destined for an interior point or a place best reached by reshipment from another port.
TRANSPHIPMENT PORT Place where cargo is transferred to another carriers.
TRANSPORT To move cargo from one place to another.
TRANSSHIPMENT  To transfer from one ship or conveyance to another for further transit.
TRANSSHIPMENT CARGO Transshipment cargo is received at a port  from another nearby port for further movement to distant ports.
TRANSTAINER  A type of crane used in the handling of containers, which is motorized, mounted on rubber tires and can straddle at least four railway tracks, some up to six, with a lifting capacity of 35 tons for loading and unloading containers to and from railway cards.
TRIM The relationship between a ship's draughts forward and aft.
TRIMMING  The operation of shoveling grain, coal and other bulk cargoes to the wings or ends of the holds when loading.
TRIP-TIME CHARTER  A vessel chartered on time charter terms but for a specific voyage and expected duration. The charterer pays hire instead of freight and the contract is that of a time charter.
TRUCKS  Heavy automotive vehicles used to transport cargo. In the maritime industry, cargo is often carried by tractor-trailers. The tractor is the front part of the vehicle, also called a cab. The trailer is the detachable wheeled chassis behind the tractor, on which containers or other cargoes are placed. (See: common carrier; heavy hauler; drayage)
TUG  A small vessel designed to tow or push large ships or barges. Tugs have powerful diesel engines and are essential for manoeuvring large ships around the port. Pusher tugs are also used to push enormous trains of barges on the rivers and inland waterways of the U.S. Ocean-going salvage tugs provide assistance to ships in distress and engage in such work as towing drilling rigs and oil production platforms.
TUG HIRE CHARGES Tug hire charges relate to the tugging services provided by the port operator / authority, which own and operate the rugs.
TUGBOAT Strong v-hull shaped boat used for maneuvering ships into and out of port and to carry supplies. A ship is too powerful to pull up to the wharf on its own. It cuts power and lets the tug nudge it in. Generally barges are pushed by towboats, not tugs.
TURN This refers to the sequence in which a vessel is available for laytime when other vessels are meant to use the same cargo-handling berth or when cargo is available.
TURN ROUND TIME  Time taken to discharge and/or load a ship at a terminal.
TURNAROUND In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.
TURNING CIRCLE Turning circle is a circular area which enables a ship, to maneuver its way into or out of the berthing area.
TWEEN DECK General cargo vessels may have one or more tweendecks (upper and lower) dividing the cargo compartments into lower hold and tween deck space there may be more than one tween deck in older style general cargo ships and certain passenger ships.
TWENTY FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT  (TEU) A unit of measurement equal to the space occupied by a standard twenty foot container. Used in stating the capacity of container vessel or storage area. One 40 ft. Container is equal to two TEU's.
TWIST LOCKS A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part if a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers.
U.S.G United States Gulf. This is part of the Gulf of Maxico between North America and South America on the Eastern seaboard of the North American Continent. Geographically, the Gulf is not part of the U.S.A. yet the abbreviation refers to ports in the U.S.A. such as Tampa, New Orleans, Galveston and Houston, from which or to which vessels are chartered.
ULLAGE  Historically quantity a cask or drum lacks of being full. Now days the term is used for tankers or oil storing tanks representing empty spaces.
ULTRA LARGE CRUDE CARRIERS  Tankers above 320,000 tones dwt.
UNCLAIMED FREIGHT Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner.
UNCLEAN BILL OF LADING  A bill containing reservations as to the good order and condition of the goods, or the packaging, or both. Examples  "bags torn;" "drums leaking;" "one case damaged;" "rolls chafed."
UNDERCHARGE To change less than the proper amount.
UNDERDECK TONNAGE Space below the "tonnage deck", above the double bottom tanks, open or ceilings and between inboard faces of frames or sparring and including protuberances such as shaft bossings, bulbous bows,and so on. (The "tonnage deck" is the second/deck from above except in the case of single-decked vessels in which case it is the upper deck.)
UNDERWAY A vessel is underway when it is not at anchor, made fast to the shore or aground.
UNLESS SOONER COMMENCED  Time actually used before commencement of lay time shall count.
UNLOADING Removal of a shipment from a vessel.
UNITIZATION The consolidation of a quality of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling.  Loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipments, such as a pallet.
A number of cartons or other pieces of cargo that are loaded onto a container as a single unit, typically either on a platform called a pallet, or a slipsheet. This type of handling fa ciliates handling by a load truck.
UNLESS USED  This refers to the counting of lay time and exceptions to lay time such as Sundays and holidays. If work is carried out during the expected days the actual hours of work only to count as lay time.
UNSEAWORTHINESS  The state or condition of a vessel when it is not in a proper state of maintenance, or if the loading equipment or crew, or in any other respect is not ready to encounter the ordinary perils of sea.
Unloading a container.
UNVALUED POLICY This is one one which does not specify the value of the subjectmatter insured but leaves the insurable value to be ascertained later subject to any agreed limit. These policies are seldom used.
US EFFECTIVE CONTROLLED FLEET  That fleet of merchant ships owned by United
States citizens or corporations and registered under flags of convenience or necessity such as Liberia or Panama. The term is used to emphasize that, while the fleet is not US-flag, it is effectively under U.S. control by virtue of the ship's owners and can be called to serve U.S. interests in time of emergency. U.S.-flag vessels are registered in the United States and are subject to additional U.S. laws and regulations to which foreign-flag vessels are not. They must be owned by U.S. citizens, corporations, or governments and must be crewed mainly by U.S. citizens
  An abbrevation signifying that the vessel proceeds to a port or ports on the United States East Coast.
VALIDATION Authentication of B/ L and when B / L becomes effective.
The value of an import declared to the customs upon which customs duty will be calculated. In Australia, the value of the goods at the time of export from the exporting country, thus generally the FOB value and using the exchange rate at the date of export. Many other countries use the CIF value at the time or declaration in the importing country
VALUED POLICY Under section 27 (2) of the Marine Insurance Act, this policy specifies the agreed value of the insured subject-matter, e.g. a policy of US$1 million on hull and machinery value at US$7 million. The agreed value may not be the actual value of the subject-matter.
VARIABLE COST  Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of moving cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short-term equipment leases. For business analysis, all costs are either defined as variable or fixed. For a business to break even, all fixed costs must be covered. To make a profit, all variable and fixed costs must be recovered plus some extra amount. 
VENTILATION Cargo damage due to climatic conditions includes such effects as mould formation, germination of grain, corrosion and rust on metals, and wetting of sensitive materials such as leather. The general cause of such damage is condensation from various sources.
VERY LARGE CRUDE CARRIERS  Tankers in the range of 160,000 to 319,000 dwt.
VESSEL  Every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water.
VESSEL MANIFEST The international carriers is obligated to make declarations of the ship's crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival.  The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B /L number.  Obviously, the B / L serves as the core sources from which the manifest is created.
VESSEL OPERATOR A firm that charters vessels for its service requirements, which are handled by their own offices or appointed agents at ports of call. Vessel operators also handle the operation of vessels on behalf of owners.
VESSEL RELATED CHARGES Vessel related charges pertain to those charges that are levied by the port authorities on shipping lines for various ship related services provided such as anchorage, mooring, pilotage, tugging, towage, etc.
VISCONBILL "The cntract evidenced hereby is between the merchant and owner or demise charterer of the vessel designated to carry the goods. No. other person or legal entity shall be liable under this contract, and the protection of Article IV bis of the Hague-visby Rules and any other statutory exemption from or limitation of liability thall inure also to the benefit of stevedores and other servants or agents of the carrier. For the purpose of this clause all such persons and legal entities are deemed to be parties to this contract, made in their behalf by the carrier."
VOICE ACTIVATED OR VOICE DIRECTED Systems which guide users such as warehouse personnel via voice commands.  Also referred as Pick to Voice.
VOLCOA This is the abbreviation or "Codename" used for the standard form of Volume Contract of Affreightment for the transportation fo bulk bry cargoes. It is published by BIMCO and adopted by other shipping organisations including the General Council of British Shipping (GCBS) and FONASBA.
VOLUME WEIGHT  Used when calculating air freight when the size of the carton is greater than the average weight, calculated by multiplying the length times the width times the height and dividing by 166.
A notional or calculated weight for bulky goods sent by air. Generally stated as 6000cm3 = 1 kg, meaning that the total volume in cubic centimetres is divided by 6000 to give an equivalent weight in kgs. The airline or forwarder will charge whichever is the greater of the actual weight and volumetric weight. Also shown sometimes as 167 kg = 1 cbm
VOLUNTARY SHIP Any ship which is not required  by treaty or statue to be equipped with radio telecommunication  equipment.
VOYAGE CHARTER  Employment of a vessel for a specific and certain voyage to load at one or more named ports to be carried to a named discharging port or ports. The owner's remuneration is known as freight calculated on the amount of cargo carried. Voyage C/P contains lay time and demurrage/dispatch clauses.
VOYAGE POLICY A contract to insure the subject-matter "at and from" or from one place to another or other (section 25 (1) of the Marine Insurance Act 1906, e.g. "from Liverpool to Hong Kong". (Cargo is generally insured under a voyage policy and ships under a time policy athough both types of policy are equally applicable to cargo and ships. Voyage policies can be used for hulls, e.g. on delivery or scrapping voyages)
WAR CLAUSE These clause in charterparties are "general protective clauses" usually protecting the shipowner. They also deal with "frustration" of the contract because of impossibility of performance or illegality, if the country in which the vessel is registered makes trading with a country which is involved in war or hostilities against the former country's law. War and hostilities may also expose the ship, its crew to aditional risks, some of which may not be unsurable or, if insurable, at a very high cost.
WAREHOUSE ENTRY Document that identifies goods imported when placed in a bonded warehouse.  The duty is not  imposed on the products while in the warehouse but will be collected when they are withdrawn for delivery or consumption.
WAREHOUSING The storing of goods / cargo
WAREHOUSE RECEIPT  A receipt supplied by a warehouseman for goods he has placed in storage.
WAREHOUSE-TO-WAREHOUSE CLAUSE  The clause in the Cargo Policy that defines when coverage commences and terminates. It is the intent of the policy to attach at the time the goods leave the warehouse of origin named in the Policy, and to continue while the goods are in due course of transit until delivered to the warehouse of destination named in the Policy, where it terminates.
WASHPLATE In order to minimise the movement of fuel oil or water in partially filled tanks during heavy weather, thereby exposing the tanks to heavy train, longitudinal washplates are fitted, thus reducing the free surface.
WATCH The day at sea is divided into six four-hour periods. Three groups of watchstanders are on duty for four hours and then off for eight, then back to duty. Seamen often work overtime during their off time. 
WAYBILL (WB) A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment, shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It is forward with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or way bill destination.  Abbreviation is WB.  Unlike a bill of lading, a way bill is NOT a document of title.
WCCON (WHETHER CUSTOMS CLEARED OR NOT This phrase refers to the time when a notice of radiness can be tendered by the naster of a vessel especially if the vessel has not reached its agreed destination if this is a berth (in a "berth charter") because this is unavailable.
WEATHER PERMITTING  That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as lay time.
WEATHER WORKING DAY  A working day or part of a working day during which it is possible (if the vessel is loading / discharging) to load of discharge the cargo without interference due to weather. If such interference occurs (or would have occurred if work had been in progress) there shall be excluded from lay time a period calculated by reference to the ratio which the duration of the interference bears to the time which would have or could have been worked but for the interference.
WEIGHMENT CHARGES Weighment charges refer to charges for weighing service using facilities such as weigh bridges in a port area
WEIGHT CARGO A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.
Payload achieved as against available, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100% are rarely achieved.
WET LEASE  It is an arrangement for renting of an aircraft under which the owner provides crews, ground support equipment, fuel, etc. 
WHARF A  structure built on the shore of a harbor extending into deep water so that vessels may lie alongside.
WHARFAGE  A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
WHARFAGE FEE  A charge assessed by a pier or wharf owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
WHEN AND WHERE READY (WWR) This abbrevation may indicate the availability of a vessel
WHETHER IN BERTH OR NOT or BERTH NO BERTH  If the named location for loading / discharging is a berth and if the berth is not immediately accessible to the ship NOR can be given when the ship has arrived at the port in which the berth is situated.
WHETHER IN FREE PRATIQUE OR NOT  With the insertion of this phrase, NOR can be tendered even if the health clearance formalities are not completed.
WHETHER IN PORT OR NOT  The vessel need not exactly be within the port limits for NOR to be tendered. If is possible to do this if the vessel has arrived at the usual waiting place for the vessel to become an arrived ship.
WINDJAMMER  large ship powered by wind and sails, used for pleasure cruising. 
A freight booking made by a skipper or freight forwarder to serve space but not actually having a specific cargo at the time the booking is made. Carriers often overbook a vessel by 10 to 20 percent in recognition that "windy booking" cargo will not actually ship
WITH AVERAGE   It is a term for marine insurance, which mean that the shipment is protected for partial damage whenever it exceeds a stated percentage.
WITH OUT GUARANTEE  By the use of this phrase the ship-owner is not bound by the veracity of the statement. The phrase is commonly used during negotiations in order to guard all parties involved in the transactions.
WITHOUR RESERVE It is a term under which the agent or representative of a shipper is empowered to make any decision and adjustments abroad without the approval of the group or individual represented
WORKING DAY  Day or parts of a day which are not expressly excluded from lay time by the C/P and which are not holidays.
WORLDSCALE  Scale by which tanker freight rates are quoted.
X Strong Extra Strong
XX Heavy
Double extra heavy
XX Strong Double extra strong
YARD A classification, storage or waiting area.
YARK-ANTWERP RULES (YAR) It is usual to settle "general average" according to these Rules, the most recent version being that of 1974. They clearly define the sacrifices and expenses which will be made good as general average and in what manner the apportionment will be between the different parties, such as the owner, the cargo interests and the charterer.
ZULU TIME Time based on Greenwich Mean Time.